Novi recepti

Spiaggia's Crescenza Ravioli s receptom Parmigiano-Reggiano i umakom od maslaca od tartufa

Spiaggia's Crescenza Ravioli s receptom Parmigiano-Reggiano i umakom od maslaca od tartufa

Elegantno i bogato, ovo jelo od tjestenine sastoji se od vrhunskih namirnica. Crescenza sir je mekan, svjež i kremast sir koji je idealan za ove jastuke od tjestenine.

Prilagođeno prema "The Spiaggia Cookbook: Eleganza Italiana in Cucina" Tonyja Mantuana

Sastojci

  • 2 šolje brašna tipa 00 (najfinije mleveno brašno, tipično italijansko)*
  • 1 kašičica soli
  • 8 žumanjaka, lagano umućeno
  • 1/3 šolje vode
  • ½ štapića hladnog putera, plus 1 ½ šolje nesoljenog putera
  • 1 kilogram sira Crescenza
  • 1/3 šolje ulja od tartufa
  • 1 ½ šolje naribanog parmigiano-reggiano ili parmezana
  • 12 češnja belog luka, tanko narezanog, hrskavog na maslinovom ulju
  • 12 malih grančica svežeg ruzmarina
  • 1 šolja jestivih latica cvijeća (opcionalno)

*Napomena: Umjesto toga možete upotrijebiti mješavinu 2/3 šolje griz brašna i 1 1/3 šolje običnog brašna

Upute

Brašno izgnječite na tijesto za pecivo ili drugu drvenu ili mramornu radnu površinu. Napravite udubljenje u sredini i dodajte sol i žumanjke. Vilicom postepeno umiješajte brašno u jaja, dodavajući vodu malo po malo dok ne dobijete mekano tijesto. Zamijesite nekoliko puta dok ne postane glatko, a zatim oblikujte tijesto u kuglu, zamotajte u plastiku i stavite u hladnjak na 1 sat.

Zagrijte pećnicu na 375 ° F.

Na blago pobrašnjenoj površini razvaljajte tijesto za tjesteninu na tanke listove. Kuharskim nožem ili kotačićem za tijesto izrežite listove tjestenine na dvadeset četiri kvadrata veličine 5 x 5 inča. Stavite kvadrate na blago pobrašnjenu dasku ili krpu dok ne budete spremni za kuhanje. Izrežite 24 pravokutnika pergamentnog papira, svaki dimenzija 7 x 7 ½ inča. Namastite svaki komad hladnim štapićem maslaca, ostavljajući 11/Granica od 2 inča otkopčana.

Uzmite činiju ledene vode. Zagrijte veliku šerpu blago posoljene vode. Dodajte kvadrate tjestenine u kipuću vodu i kuhajte dok ne budu al dente (nježni, ali čvrsti na zalogaj), 1 do 2 minute. Uklonite kvadrate tjestenine šupljikavom žlicom, mućkajući kako biste uklonili višak vlage, i pažljivo prebacite u ledenu vodu kako biste zaustavili kuhanje. Radeći brzo, uklanjajte kvadrate tjestenine jedan po jedan iz ledene vode i položite ih ravno na krpu da se osuše. Nemojte se preklapati ili će se kvadratići spojiti.

Narežite sir Crescenza na 24 komada, svaki širine oko 2 inča, dužine 2 inča i debljine ¼ inča. Stavite komad sira na sredinu svakog kvadrata tjestenine, a donji i gornji dio tjestenine preklopite preko sredine, omotajući je oko sira. Zatim preklopite stranice u sredinu, u stilu buritoa. Postavite ravioletto, šavom okrenutim prema dolje, na sredini komada pergamenta premazanog maslacem i preklopite pergament oko tjestenine, ponavljajući tehniku ​​koja se koristi za omotavanje tjestenine oko sira. Paket pergamenta, sa šavom prema dolje, stavite na lim za pečenje. Ponovite s preostalom tjesteninom, sirom i pergamentom.

Pecite dok rubovi pergamentnog papira ne dobiju zlatno smeđu boju, 10 do 12 minuta.

U međuvremenu, u loncu na umjerenoj vatri otopite 1 ½ šolje maslaca. Kuhajte do orah-smeđe boje, 4 do 6 minuta. Umiješajte ulje od tartufa.

Za posluživanje stavite 1 žlicu Parmigiano-Reggiana u središte svakog od 12 zagrijanih tanjura. Pažljivo uklonite pergament oko a ravioletto i stavite ga na naribani sir. Dogovorite sekundu ravioletto pored prvog. Žlicom prelijte 2 kašike maslaca od tartufa ravioletti. Pospite s još 1 žlicom Parmigiano-Reggiana. Ukrasite hrskavicom češnjaka, ružmarinom i laticama cvijeća, ako ih koristite. Ponovite da napravite preostalih 11 obroka. Poslužite odmah.

Napomena ** Zamotan u pergament i stavljen u hermetički zatvorenu posudu ravioletti dobro zamrznuti do 1 mjesec. Pecite iz zamrzivača 25 minuta i nastavite prema uputstvu.


15 najboljih italijanskih restorana u SAD -u i#8211 Fodor ’s Travel

Žudite li za nekom ručno izrađenom tjesteninom, bocom Barola i možda malo tiramisua da sve zatvorite? Srećom, ne morate ići sve do Italije da biste probali neku od ovih izvrsnih kuhinja. U Sjedinjenim Državama se nalaze nevjerovatni talijanski restorani u kojima vam je potreban samo jedan zalogaj za prijevoz od Bologne do Sicilije.

Casa Don Alfonso, glamurozni novi restoran talijanskog ugostitelja Maria Iaccarina s Michelinovom zvjezdicom u Ritz-Carltonu, St. Louis. Mnogi od najvažnijih sastojaka uvoze se izravno iz Italije, uključujući maslinovo ulje s porodične farme u Sorrentu, leću Castelluccio iz Umbrije i prilagođenu mješavinu espressa koja se peče i polako dimi od drveta hrasta, masline i naranče. Iaccarinov prvi američki restoran ima za cilj prijevoz posjetitelja u južnu Italiju, ponavljajući ambijent u poznatom butik hotelu i restoranu njegove porodice Don Alfonso 1890 u Sant'Agati. Porodični recepti poput veganske juhe od leće protiv starenja, skromne miješane tjestenine s krompirom i dimljene scamorza, i originalni recept djeda Alfonsa za maccheroni gratin na jelovniku su zajedno s napuljskim pizzama na drva, pečenim janjetinom i familiar pazza ulov dana.

Valterova Osteria, stari ste prijatelj u trenutku kada uđete kroz vrata, a zidovi su obloženi fotografijama Nassi sa uhranjenim slavnim ličnostima. Ljubitelji tjestenine mogu isprobati uzorke svakodnevnih domaćih njoka i raviola ili lazanja posluženih s posebnim mesnim umakom Valterine majke. Zatim zaronite u pačja prsa od komorača sa koricama i umakom od grožđa, a zatim slijedi slasna panna cotta za desert-jednostavna, ali uzvišena. Tokom pandemije, 74-godišnji vlasnik je svake večeri posjećivao svoje goste putem Facetimea, a njegova toplina i briga isijavali su kroz ekran.

L'Antica Pizzeria Da Michele u Hollywoodu vas odvodi u Napulj. Ova ispostava čuvene napuljske picerije u Los Angelesu koristi isti recept, pećnicu i sastojke (uključujući uvezene rajčice) za repliciranje pizze na originalnoj lokaciji otvorenoj 1870. godine koja je predstavljena u Jedi moli ljubav. Vlasnik Francesco Zimone dizajnirao je dvorište restorana prema onima u Italiji, s dozom kalifornijske bezbrižnosti. Plavo -bijele pločice nižu zidove koji okružuju pećnicu -izlog, u kojoj mjehuriće margherita, diavola, i pizze s tartufima majstorski su izrađene i isporučuju se na dugim drvenim veslima.

Osteria Langhe. Zaninotto je odrastao između Belgije i Italije, a Grant ima dugogodišnje iskustvo u kuhanju pijemontske hrane za talijanske večere u Trstu. Zec je glavna namirnica u Piemonteu i poznat je kao „piletina“ u regiji budući da stvarna piletina nije jako česta. U Osteria Langheu, Grant poslužuje zečje krikove umotane u pršut preko kremaste palente s miješanim gljivama i jusom od crnih tartufa. To je najbolji zec u Chicagu - blagog okusa, sočan i ukusan. The vitello tonnato omiljeni su i ručno stegnuti plin, tjestenina sa maslacem od žumanjaka punjena la turskim sirom.

Yolan sa porodicom Pizzuti u najtoplijem novom hotelu u gradu, The Joseph. Restoran s finim blagovaonom u prizemlju utjelovljuje istu eleganciju i sofisticiranu uslugu (svježi talijanski tartufi obilno obrijani pored stola), Mantuanos je šampionirao na Spiaggia-i sa Michelinovom zvjezdicom, a gosti proviruju pored grmljavina točkova od 80 kilograma Parmigiano Reggiana u prozirnoj pećini sa sirom do kuhinje , gdje se pojavljuju cijevi od tortelina u brodu i svinjske koljenice s palentom od šafrana i blitvom. Za ugodne apetite dostupan je jelovnik degustacije s pet i osam sljedova, a svake subote Yolan ugošćuje intimne regionalne radionice degustacije talijanskog vina. Šef poslastičarke Noelle Marchetti ubija je domaćom proizvodnjom gelati, prepečeni kolačići od pinjola i prekrasan desert od pečenih trešanja s maslinovim uljem od vanilije i beze od kleke.

Spinasse, gledajte tjesteninu svježu u otvorenoj kuhinji prije nego okrenete vilicu putera tajarin ukrašeno kaduljom do vaših usana. Šef kuhinje Stuart Lane pohađao je Talijanski kulinarski institut u Pijemonteu prije nego što se vratio u Seattle i preuzeo uzde u Spinsseu i ležernom sestrinskom restoranu Artusi u susjedstvu. Većinu sastojaka, poput kraljevskog lososa i divljih gljiva, snabdijeva lokalno, a svi su pripremljeni s talijanskim osjećajem. Vinska karta, koju je organizirala GM i direktorica vina, Angela Lopez, ističe najbolja crna vina u regiji, uključujući Barbaresco, Barolo i Nebbiolo, a klasični talijanski kokteli također su tehnički udžbenički.

Frasca je godinama osvojio više nagrada James Beard, prepoznajući njihovu hranu, vinski program i izvanrednu uslugu. Ovdje je hrana posebno iz subalpske regije Friuli-Venezia Giulia na sjeveroistoku Italije, koja graniči s Austrijom i Slovenijom. U Furlaniji, a frasca je neformalno okupljalište u komšiluku za razmjenu obroka i boce vina s prijateljima i porodicom. Početi sa frico caldo čips od sira i tanjir salumi pre nego što se ukopamo campanelle sa divlje svinje ragu.

Sfera sicilijanska ulična hrana Sfera spaja tradicionalne sicilijanske recepte i tehnike s najboljim sastojcima srednjeg zapada, inspirisana ljetovima suvlasnice Daniele Vitale sa porodicom na Siciliji. Scaccia-presavijena "pizza" od griza sa hrskavim vanjskim izgledom i gnjecavim središtem nalik lazanji-je jelo s potpisom, posluženo sa prilogom od domaćeg umaka od marinare za umakanje i preliveno mocarelom, parmezanom, svježim bosiljkom i ricottom od divljeg češnjaka. Arancini (punjene kuglice rižota) još su jedan sicilijanski klasik, a slasticama će se svidjeti kanoli-ispunjeni domaćom rikotom i svježe pečenim pistaćima ili marmeladom od višanja iz okruga Door i čipsom od tamne čokolade.

Barolo Grill je talijanska institucija u Denverskom naselju Cherry Creek, specijalizirana za sjevernoitalijansku kuhinju i vino, uključujući, naravno, opsežan izbor Barola i Barbaresca iz Pijemonta. Svakog ljeta cijelo osoblje hodi na desetodnevno hodočašće u Italiju kako bi iskusili i bolje razumjeli bogatu talijansku kulinarsku kulturu i povijest, istražujući Pijemont, Toskanu, Umbriju, Marche i Veneto. Kad poslužitelj ili sommelier preporuči uparivanje vina za vaš obrok, često su šetali vinogradima i degustirali ta vina s vinarima. Cassoulet od plodova mora s toskanskim bijelim pasuljem, tigrastim kozicama i kobasicom od jastoga te pirjana patka Barolo istaknuti su. Uštedite mjesto za kolač od sira Castelmagno s medom od lavande i prepečenim lješnjacima za desert.

Montelupo Italian Market hibrid je tržnice restorana koji je upravo otvoren prošlog ljeta u Portlandu u Oregonu. Vlasnik kuhara Adam Berger nazvao je svoj restoran po gradiću Montelupo u Piemonteu, gdje je naučio praviti svježu tjesteninu. Nekoliko najprevoznijih jela su bucatini svi ’amatriciana s pancetom, čilijem, češnjakom i rajčicom, i svilenkastom tajarin tjestenina s maslacem od tartufa i Parmigiano Reggiano. Na njihovim policama nalaze se italijanske namirnice koje je teško pronaći, svježa tjestenina koja se svakodnevno proizvodi u kući, dekadentni deserti, umaci od tjestenine u domaćim posudama, lokalno i talijansko vino, kokteli u bocama i drugo. Tiramisu je za umrijeti i savršena ponoćna užina ako naručite hranu za van ili dostavu.

Quinci Emporium donosi autentičan okus Italije na srednji zapad sa eklektičnim izborom vina, sira, svježe pečenih slanih i slatkih poslastica i delicija poput sicilijanskog džema od duda i meda od tartufa za vašu smočnicu. Svratite na sirastu focacciu od artičoke napravljenu od sardinijskog maslinovog ulja ili popodnevni pick-me-up macchiato (espresso je iz Quincijevog rodnog grada Palerma) i biskote. Kolačići od badema su njen porodični recept, a pecivo od smeđeg maslaca opasno stvara ovisnost. Quinci redovno održava časove intimne kuhinje, gdje možete naučiti peći sa brašnom vina Sangiovese ili brašnom od kestena, te degustirati vina s gostujućim talijanskim vinarima, iako se oni brzo rasprodaju.

Meni Fat Ox. Kuhar Matt Carter maslinovo ulje dobiva iz Ligurije, a balzamiko sirće iz Modene i kaže da je klima u Scottsdaleu vrlo slična južnoj Italiji pa može nabaviti agrume, smokve, čili i paradajz lokalno u Arizoni. Kuhanje drži jednostavnim kako bi ovi sastojci zasjali sa svježim pečenim povrćem i proteinima. Testenine, uključujući mastilo od lignji chitarra, i pappardelle se svakodnevno proizvode u kući. Mediteran branzino odjevena je jednostavno sa salsa verdeom i prženim začinskim biljem, dok je organska piletina pečena na cigli nemoguće sočna, poslužena s palentom i ljutim umakom domaće proizvodnje.

Uovo se svakodnevno ručno izrađuje u Bologni, a zatim se preko noći šalje u njihove restorane Santa Monica i Mid-Wilshire. Testenine se prave samo od jaja, brašna i soli, ali talijanska jaja sa svojim bogatim žumancima daju ovoj tjestenini živahnu žutu boju. Svaki rezanci se prosipa i izreže sfogline, Italijanke koje su svoj život posvetile savladavanju umjetnosti izrade tjestenine. Recepti za karbonaru, lazanje, cacio e pepe i crema di parmigiano na meniju Uovo bili su inspirisani nekim od najboljih restorana sa tjesteninom u porodičnom vlasništvu u Bologni i Rimu, uključujući Antica Trattoria della Gigina, Trattoria da Danilo i Antica Osteria del Mirasole.

Duvan od 2006. godine vitello tonnato, hladna tanko narezana teletina prekrivena kremastim umakom nalik majonezi sa okusom tunjevine, i stracotto al Barolo, pečenje u loncu na Piemont, dva su prepoznatljiva jela, koja se ne razlikuju od najboljih u Torinu. Kuhar i suvlasnik Staffan Terje godišnje putuje u Italiju radi opsežnog istraživanja blagovaonice, a svake godine uvozi svježe crno-bijele tartufe od pouzdanih stočara. I Perbacova mašina za tjesteninu La Monferrina i mašina za sladoled Carpigiani također se uvoze iz Italije.

Giulia otvorena 2019. u Emeryju, hotelski restoran oduševio je Minneapolis svojim autentičnim jelima sjeverne Italije, uključujući pažljivo savijene agnolotti punjene divljači sugo i premazan maslacem od žalfije. Šef kuhinje Steven Brown čak je kratko radio u Osterinoj Francescani u Modeni, koja je proglašena za najbolji restoran na svijetu po izboru 50 najboljih restorana na svijetu. Započnite svoj obrok sa svježim stolom uz mocarelu, poslužen toplim uz priloge poput prilagođenog mješavine balzamikovog octa, pečene i ukiseljene paprike, zadimljene mrlje i tapenadu od crnih maslina od češnjaka s peludom mandarine i komorača. Amaro kolica još su jedan vrhunac i prilika za istraživanje više od 50 sorti ovog talijanskog biljnog likera. Amaro se obično jede kao digestiv nakon obroka, ali se također može miješati u bilo koji broj koktela, uključujući negronis.


Sadržaj

Italijanska kuhinja razvijala se vekovima. Iako se zemlja poznata kao Italija nije ujedinila sve do 19. stoljeća, kuhinja može tražiti korijene koji se mogu pratiti još u 4. stoljeću prije nove ere. Hrana i kultura su u to vrijeme bili vrlo važni, što možemo vidjeti iz kuharice (Apicius) koja datira iz prvog stoljeća prije nove ere. [14] Kroz stoljeća, susjedne regije, osvajači, vrhunski kuhari, politički potresi i otkriće Novog svijeta uticali su na njegov razvoj. Talijanska kuhinja počela se formirati nakon pada Rimskog carstva kada su se različiti gradovi počeli odvajati i stvarati vlastite tradicije. Proizvedeno je mnogo različitih vrsta kruha i tjestenine, a bilo je i varijacija u tehnikama kuhanja i pripremi.

Zemlja je tada bila dugo podijeljena i pod uticajem okolnih zemalja poput Španije, Francuske i Centralne Evrope. Ovo i trgovina ili lokacija na Putu svile sa svojim putevima prema Aziji utjecali su na lokalni razvoj posebnih jela. Zbog klimatskih uvjeta i različite blizine mora, različita osnovna hrana i začini bili su dostupni od regije do regije. Regionalnu kuhinju predstavljaju neki od većih gradova u Italiji. Na primjer, Milan (sjeverno od Italije) poznat je po rižotima, Trst (sjeveroistočno od Italije) poznat je po multikulturalnoj hrani, Bologna (središnji/srednji dio zemlje) poznata je po tortelinima, a Napulj (južni) je poznat za svoje pice. [15] Dobar primjer su dobro poznati špageti za koje se vjeruje da su se proširili Afrikom do Sicilije, a zatim do Napulja. [16] [17]

Uređivanje antike

Prvi poznati italijanski pisac hrane bio je grčki Sicilijanac po imenu Archestratus iz Sirakuze u 4. veku pre nove ere. Napisao je pjesmu u kojoj se govori o upotrebi "vrhunskih i sezonskih" sastojaka. Rekao je da se okusi ne smiju maskirati začinima, biljem ili drugim začinima. Pridao je važnost jednostavnoj pripremi ribe. [18]

Jednostavnost je napuštena i zamijenjena kulturom gastronomije kako se Rimsko carstvo razvijalo. Do tada De re coquinaria objavljen u 1. stoljeću poslije Krista, sadržavao je 470 recepata koji pozivaju na intenzivnu upotrebu začina i bilja. Rimljani su zapošljavali grčke pekare za proizvodnju kruha i uvoznih sireva sa Sicilije jer su Sicilijanci imali reputaciju najboljih sirara. Rimljani su uzgajali koze za klanje, a uzgajali su artičoke i poriluk. [18]

Srednji vijek Uredi

S kulinarskom tradicijom iz Rima i Atene, kuhinja razvijena na Siciliji koju neki smatraju prvom pravom talijanskom kuhinjom. [ potreban citat ] Arapi su napali Siciliju u 9. veku, unoseći spanać, bademe i pirinač. [19] Tokom 12. stoljeća, jedan normanski kralj je pregledao Siciliju i vidio ljude kako prave dugačke konce od brašna i vode tzv. atriya, što je na kraju i postalo trii, izraz koji se još uvijek koristi za špagete u južnoj Italiji. [20] Normani su također predstavili tepsiju, bakalar od soli (baccalà) i stočnu ribu, a sve to ostaje popularno. [21]

Konzerviranje hrane bilo je kemijsko ili fizičko jer nije postojalo hlađenje. Meso i riba su se dimili, sušili ili držali na ledu. Slanica i sol korišteni su za kiseljenje predmeta poput haringe i za liječenje svinjetine. Korenovci su konzervisani u salamuri nakon što su prokuhani. Drugi načini konzerviranja uključivali su ulje, ocat ili potapanje mesa u smrznutu topljenu mast. Za očuvanje voća koristilo se žestoko piće, med i šećer. [22]

Sjeverne talijanske regije pokazuju mješavinu germanske i rimske kulture, dok jug odražava arapski [19] utjecaj, budući da se mediteranska kuhinja širila arapskom trgovinom. [23] Najstarija italijanska knjiga o kuhinji je 13. vijek Liber de coquina napisano u Napulju. Jela uključuju kupus u "rimskom stilu" (ad usum romanorum), ad usum campanie koji su bili „mali listovi“ pripremljeni na „kampanjski način“, jelo od pasulja iz Marca di Trevisio, torta, compositum londardicum koji su slični danas pripremljenim jelima. Još dvije knjige iz 14. stoljeća uključuju recepte za rimski jezik pastello, Pitu od lazanje, te zatražite upotrebu soli sa Sardinije ili Chioggije. [24]

U 15. stoljeću maestro Martino bio je kuhar oglejskog patrijarha u Vatikanu. Njegovo Libro de arte coquinaria opisuje profinjeniju i elegantniju kuhinju. Njegova knjiga sadrži recept za Maccaroni Siciliani, napravljeno omotavanjem tijesta oko tanke željezne šipke da se osuši na suncu. Makaroni su se kuhali u temeljcu komora s okusom šafrana, pokazujući perzijski utjecaj. Posebno se ističe Martinovo izbjegavanje pretjeranih začina u korist svježeg začinskog bilja. [21] Rimski recepti uključuju coppiette (salama sušena na zraku) i jela od kupusa. Njegova firentinska jela uključuju jaja sa Bolognese torta, Sienese torta i đenovljanski recepti poput piperata (slatkiši), makaroni, tikve, pečurke i pita od špinata sa lukom. [25]

Martinov tekst uključen je u knjigu Bartolomea Platine iz 1475. godine pod naslovom naslovljenu De honesta voluptate et valetudine ("O iskrenom zadovoljstvu i dobrom zdravlju"). Platina stavlja Martinovo "Libro" u regionalni kontekst, pišući o smuđima iz jezera Maggiore, srdelama iz jezera Garda, lipljenima iz Adde, kokošima iz Padove, maslinama iz Bologne i Picena, kanjonu iz Ravene, ruddom iz jezera Trasimeno, mrkvom iz Viterba, basom sa Tibra, roviglioni i sjenilo iz jezera Albano, puževi iz Rietija, smokve iz Tuscola, grožđe iz Narnija, ulje iz Cassina, naranče iz Napulja i jegulje iz Kampanije. Spominju se žitarice iz Lombardije i Kampanije, kao i med sa Sicilije i Taranta. U knjizi se spominju i vino sa ligurijske obale, greko iz Toskane i San Severina te Trebbiano iz Toskane i Piceno. [26]

Rano moderno doba Edit

Dvori u Firenci, Rimu, Veneciji i Ferrari bili su centralni u kuhinji. Cristoforo di Messisbugo, upravitelj Ippolito d'Este, objavljeno Banchetti Composizioni di Vivande 1549. Messisbugo daje recepte za pite i kolače (sadrži 124 recepta s raznim punjenjem). Rad naglašava upotrebu istočnjačkih začina i šećera. [27]

1570. Bartolomeo Scappi, lični kuhar pape Pija V, napisao je svoje Opera u pet tomova, koji daje sveobuhvatan prikaz talijanske kuhinje tog razdoblja. Sadrži više od 1.000 recepata, s podacima o banketima, uključujući izložbe i menije, kao i ilustracije kuhinjskog i stolnog pribora. Ova knjiga se razlikuje od većine knjiga napisanih za kraljevske sudove po tome što preferira domaće životinje i ptice u dvorištu, a ne divljač.

Recepti uključuju manje komade mesa poput jezika, glave i ramena. Treći tom sadrži recepte za ribu u korizmi. Ovi riblji recepti su jednostavni, uključujući krivolov, pečenje na žaru i prženje nakon mariniranja.

Posebna pažnja posvećuje se godišnjim dobima i mjestima gdje treba uloviti ribu. Konačni volumen uključuje pite, kolače, uštipke i recept za slatku napuljsku pizzu (nije trenutna slana verzija, jer paradajz još nije bio uveden u Italiju). Međutim, uključeni su i predmeti iz Novog svijeta kao što su kukuruz (puretina) i puretina. [28]

U prvoj deceniji 17. stoljeća pisao je Giacomo Castelvetro Breve Racconto di Tutte le Radici di Tutte l'Herbe et di Tutti i Frutti (Kratak prikaz svih korijena, biljaka i voća), prevela na engleski Gillian Riley. Porijeklom iz Modene, Castelvetro se preselio u Englesku jer je bio protestant. Knjiga navodi talijansko povrće i voće zajedno s njihovom pripremom. Povrće je predstavljao kao centralni dio obroka, a ne samo kao prilog. [28] Castelvetro je preferirao kuhanje povrća u slanoj vodi i posluživanje toplog ili hladnog s maslinovim uljem, solju, svježom mljevenom paprikom, limunovim sokom, verjusom ili sokom od naranče. Predložio je i pečenje povrća umotanog u vlažni papir na drvenom ugljenu ili žeravici s malo maslinovog ulja. Castelvetrova knjiga podijeljena je na sezone sa izdancima hmelja u proljeće i tartufima zimi, detaljno opisujući upotrebu svinja u potrazi za tartufima. [28]

Godine 1662. objavio je Bartolomeo Stefani, kuhar Vojvodstva Mantove L'Arte di Ben Cucinare (Engleski: 'Umjetnost dobrog kuhanja'). On je prvi ponudio odjeljak o vitto ordinario ("obična hrana"). U knjizi je opisan banket koji je vojvoda Charles priredio za švedsku kraljicu Christinu, s detaljima hrane i postavki stola za svakog gosta, uključujući nož, viljušku, žlicu, staklo, tanjur (umjesto zdjela koje se češće koriste) i salveta. [29]

Druge knjige iz ovog doba, kao npr Galatheo autor Giovanni della Casa, reci kako scalci ("konobari") trebaju se snalaziti sami dok služe svoje goste. Konobari ne bi trebali grebati glavu ili druge dijelove sebe, niti pljuvati, njuškati, kašljati ili kihati dok poslužuju restoran. Knjiga je također poručila restoranima da ne koriste prste dok jedu i da ne brišu znoj ubrusom. [29]

Moderno doba Edit

Početkom 18. stoljeća, talijanske kulinarske knjige počele su naglašavati regionalizam talijanske kuhinje, a ne francuske. Tada napisane knjige nisu više bile upućene profesionalnim kuharima, već građanskim domaćicama. [30] Periodika u obliku brošure, kao što je La cuoca cremonese (Kremonski kuhar) 1794. daju niz sastojaka prema sezoni zajedno s poglavljima o mesu, ribi i povrću. Kako je stoljeće odmicalo, ove su se knjige povećavale u veličini, popularnosti i učestalosti. [31]

U 18. stoljeću medicinski tekstovi upozoravali su seljake da ne jedu rafiniranu hranu jer se vjerovalo da su oni loši za probavu i da im tijelo zahtijeva teške obroke. Neki su vjerovali da seljaci loše jedu jer više vole da jedu. Međutim, mnogi seljaci morali su jesti trulu hranu i pljesnivi kruh jer su to bili sve što su mogli priuštiti. [32]

1779. godine napisao je Antonio Nebbia iz Macerate u regiji Marche Il Cuoco Maceratese (Kuhar iz Macerate). Nebbia se osvrnula na važnost lokalnog povrća i tjestenine, riže i njoka. Kao zalihu, preferirao je povrće i piletinu u odnosu na drugo meso.

1773. napuljski Vincenzo Corrado Il Cuoco Galante (Ljubazni kuvar) dao poseban naglasak vitto pitagorico (vegetarijanska hrana). "Pitagorina hrana sastoji se od svježeg bilja, korijena, cvijeća, plodova, sjemenki i svega onoga što se u zemlji proizvodi za našu prehranu. Nazvano je tako jer je Pitagora, kao što je poznato, koristio samo takve proizvode. Nema sumnje da je ovo Čini se da je vrsta hrane prirodnija za čovjeka, a upotreba mesa je štetna. " Ova je knjiga prva dala rajčici središnju ulogu s trinaest recepata.

Zuppa alli pomidoro u Corradovoj knjizi je jelo slično današnjoj toskanskoj papi al pomodoro. Corradovo izdanje iz 1798. predstavilo je "Traktat o krumpiru" nakon uspješne promocije gomolja od strane Francuza Antoana-Augustina Parmentiera. [34] 1790. Francesco Leonardi u svojoj knjizi L'Apicio moderno ("Moderni Apicius") skicira istoriju italijanske kuhinje iz rimskog doba i daje kao prvi recept sos od paradajza. [35]

U 19. stoljeću pisao je Giovanni Vialardi, kuhar kralja Victora Emmanuela Traktat o modernom kuharstvu i slastičarnici s receptima "prikladnim za skromno domaćinstvo". Mnogi njegovi recepti su za regionalna jela iz Torina, uključujući dvanaest za krompir, npr Đenovljani Cappon Magro. 1829. godine Il Nuovo Cuoco Milanese Economico autor Giovanni Felice Luraschi je predstavio milanska jela poput bubrega sa inćunima i limuna i njoka alla Romana. Gian Battista i Giovanni Ratto's La Cucina Genovese 1871. obratio kuhinju Ligurije. Ova knjiga sadrži prvi recept za pesto. La Cucina Teorico-Pratica koju je napisao Ippolito Cavalcanti opisao je prvi recept za tjesteninu s rajčicom. [36]

La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene (Nauka o kuhanju i umjetnost dobrog jela), autora Pellegrina Artusija, prvi put objavljen 1891. godine, naširoko se smatra kanonom klasične moderne talijanske kuhinje i još uvijek je u štampi. Njegovi recepti uglavnom potječu iz Romanje i Toskane, gdje je živio.

Talijanska kuhinja ima veliki izbor različitih sastojaka koji se obično koriste, u rasponu od voća, povrća, umaka, mesa itd. Na sjeveru Italije riba (poput bakalara ili baccalà), krumpir, pirinač, kukuruz (kukuruz) , kobasice, svinjetina i različite vrste sireva najčešći su sastojci. Jela od tjestenine s rajčicom raširena su po cijeloj Italiji. [37] [38] Talijani vole svoje sastojke svježe i suptilno začinjeno i začinjeno. [39]

U sjevernoj Italiji, iako postoji mnogo vrsta punjenih tjestenina, palenta i rižoto podjednako su popularni ako ne i više. [40] Ligurski sastojci uključuju nekoliko vrsta jela od ribe i plodova mora. Bosiljak (nalazi se u pestu), orasi i maslinovo ulje vrlo su česti. U Emiliji-Romanji uobičajeni sastojci uključuju šunku (pršut), kobasicu (cotechino), različite vrste salame, tartufe, granu, Parmigiano-Reggiano i rajčicu (bolonjski umak ili ragù).

Tradicionalna srednjotalijanska kuhinja koristi sastojke poput rajčice, svih vrsta mesa, ribe i sira pecorino. U Toskani se tjestenina (posebno pappardelle) tradicionalno poslužuje s umakom od mesa (uključujući meso divljači). U južnoj Italiji važni su rajčica (svježa ili kuhana u umaku od rajčice), paprika, masline i maslinovo ulje, češnjak, artičoke, naranče, sir ricotta, patlidžani, tikvice, određene vrste ribe (inćuni, srdele i tunjevina) i kapari komponente za domaću kuhinju.

Talijanska kuhinja je također dobro poznata (i cijenjena) po upotrebi različitih vrsta tjestenine. Testenine uključuju rezance različitih dužina, širina i oblika. Većina tjestenina može se razlikovati po oblicima po kojima je dobila ime - penne, maccheroni, špageti, linguine, fusilli, lasagne i mnogim drugim sortama ispunjenim drugim sastojcima poput raviola i tortelina.

Riječ tjestenina također se koristi za označavanje jela u kojima su proizvodi od tjestenine primarni sastojak. Obično se poslužuje s umakom. Postoji stotine različitih oblika tjestenine s barem lokalno priznatim imenima.

Primjeri uključuju špagete (tanke šipke), rigatoni (cijevi ili cilindri), fusilli (kovitlaci) i lazanje (listovi). Knedle, poput njoka (napravljenih s krumpirom ili bundevom) i rezanci poput spätzle, ponekad se smatraju tjesteninom. Oboje su tradicionalni u nekim dijelovima Italije.

Testenine su kategorisane u dva osnovna stila: sušene i sveže. Osušena testenina napravljena bez jaja može se skladištiti do dve godine u idealnim uslovima, dok se sveža testenina čuva nekoliko dana u frižideru. Testenine se uglavnom kuhaju kuhanjem. Prema talijanskom zakonu, suha tjestenina (pasta secca) može se napraviti samo od brašna tvrde pšenice ili krupice od tvrde pšenice, a češće se koristi u južnoj Italiji u odnosu na njihove sjeverne kolege, koji tradicionalno preferiraju svježu sortu jaja.

Durum brašno i durum griz imaju žutu boju. Italijanska testenina se tradicionalno kuva al dente (Italijanski: čvrst na ujed, što znači da nije previše mekan). Izvan Italije, suha tjestenina često se pravi od drugih vrsta brašna, ali to daje mekši proizvod. Postoji mnogo vrsta pšeničnog brašna s različitim nivoima glutena i proteina, ovisno o sorti koja se koristi.

Određene sorte tjestenine mogu koristiti i druga zrna i metode mljevenja za proizvodnju brašna, kako je propisano zakonom. Neke vrste tjestenine, poput pizzoccherija, napravljene su od heljdinog brašna. Svježa tjestenina može uključivati ​​jaja (pasta all'uovo "tjestenina od jaja"). Testenina od integralne pšenice postala je sve popularnija zbog svojih navodnih zdravstvenih prednosti u odnosu na testenine od rafinisanog brašna.

Svako područje ima svoje specijalitete, prvenstveno na regionalnom, ali i na pokrajinskom nivou. Razlike mogu doći iz pogranične zemlje (poput Francuske ili Austrije), bilo da je regija blizu mora ili planina, te iz ekonomije. [42] Talijanska kuhinja je također sezonska s prioritetom na korištenju svježih proizvoda. [43] [44]

Abruzzo i Molise Edit

Tjestenina, meso i povrće centralni su dio kuhinje Abruzza i Molisea. Čili papričice (peperoncini) su tipični za Abruzzo, gdje se zovu diavoletti ("mali đavoli") zbog njihove začinjene vrućine. Zbog duge istorije ovčarstva u Abruzzu i Moliseu, jela od janjetine su uobičajena. Janjetina se često kombinira sa tjesteninom. [45] Gljive (obično šumske gljive), ružmarin i češnjak također se uveliko koriste u abruzzejskoj kuhinji.

Najpoznatije je ekstra djevičansko maslinovo ulje proizvedeno na lokalnim farmama na brdima regije, obilježeno nivoom kvalitete DOP i smatra se jednim od najboljih u zemlji. [46] Renomirana vina poput Montepulciano DOCG i Trebbiano d'Abruzzo DOC smatraju se jednim od najboljih svjetskih vina. [47] 2012. boca Trebbiano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane rangirana je na 1. mjestu najboljih 50 talijanskih nagrada za vino. [48] Centerbe ("Sto bilja") je jak (72% alkohola), začinski biljni liker koji piju mještani. Još jedan liker je genziana, meki destilat korijena encijana.

The best-known dish from Abruzzo is arrosticini, little pieces of castrated lamb on a wooden stick and cooked on coals. The chitarra (literally "guitar") is a fine stringed tool that pasta dough is pressed through for cutting. In the province of Teramo, famous local dishes include the virtù soup (made with legumes, vegetables, and pork meat), the timballo (pasta sheets filled with meat, vegetables or rice), and the mazzarelle (lamb intestines filled with garlic, marjoram, lettuce, and various spices). The popularity of saffron, grown in the province of L'Aquila, has waned in recent years. [45] The most famous dish of Molise is cavatelli, a long shaped, handmade maccheroni-type pasta made of flour, semolina, and water, often served with meat sauce, broccoli, or mushrooms. Pizzelle cookies are a common dessert, especially around Christmas.

Apulia Edit

Apulia is a massive food producer: major production includes wheat, tomatoes, zucchini, broccoli, bell peppers, potatoes, spinach, eggplants, cauliflower, fennel, endive, chickpeas, lentils, beans, and cheese (like the traditional caciocavallo cheese). Apulia is also the largest producer of olive oil in Italy. The sea offers abundant fish and seafood that are extensively used in the regional cuisine, especially oysters, and mussels.

Goat and lamb are occasionally used. [49] The region is known for pasta made from durum wheat and traditional pasta dishes featuring orecchiette-type pasta, often served with tomato sauce, potatoes, mussels, or broccoli rabe. Pasta with cherry tomatoes and arugula is also popular. [50]

Regional desserts include zeppola, doughnuts usually topped with powdered sugar and filled with custard, jelly, cannoli-style pastry cream, or a butter-and-honey mixture. For Christmas, Apulians make a very traditional rose-shaped pastry called cartellate. These are fried and dipped in vin cotto, which is either a wine or fig juice reduction.

Basilicata Edit

The cuisine of Basilicata is mostly based on inexpensive ingredients and deeply anchored in rural traditions.

Pork is an integral part of the regional cuisine, often made into sausages or roasted on a spit. Famous dry sausages from the region are lucanica and soppressata. Wild boar, mutton, and lamb are also popular. Pasta sauces are generally based on meats or vegetables. The region produces cheeses like Pecorino di Filiano, Canestrato di Moliterno, Pallone di Gravina, and Paddraccio and olive oils like the Vulture. [51]

The peperone crusco, (or crusco pepper) is a staple of the local cuisine, much to be defined "The red gold of Basilicata". [52] It is consumed as a snack or as a main ingredient for several regional recipes. [53]

Among the traditional dishes are pasta con i peperoni cruschi, pasta served with dried crunchy pepper, bread crumbs and grated cheese [54] lagane e ceci, also known as piatto del brigante (brigand's dish), pasta prepared with chick peas and peeled tomatoes [55] tumacë me tulë, tagliatelle-dish of Arbëreshe culture rafanata, a type of omelette with horseradish ciaudedda, a vegetable stew with artichokes, potatoes, broad beans, and pancetta [56] and the baccalà alla lucana, one of the few recipes made with fish. Desserts include taralli dolci, made with sugar glaze and scented with anise and calzoncelli, fried pastries filled with a cream of chestnuts and chocolate.

The most famous wine of the region is the Aglianico del Vulture, others include Matera, Terre dell'Alta Val d'Agri and Grottino di Roccanova. [57]

Basilicata is also known for its mineral waters which are sold widely in Italy. The springs are mostly located in the volcanic basin of the Vulture area. [58]

Calabria Edit

In Calabria, a history of French rule under the House of Anjou and Napoleon, along with Spanish influences, affected the language and culinary skills as seen in the naming of things such as cake, gatò, from the French gateau. Seafood includes swordfish, shrimp, lobster, sea urchin, and squid. Macaroni-type pasta is widely used in regional dishes, often served with goat, beef, or pork sauce and salty ricotta. [59]

Main courses include frìttuli (prepared by boiling pork rind, meat, and trimmings in pork fat), different varieties of spicy sausages (like Nduja and Capicola), goat, and land snails. Melon and watermelon are traditionally served in a chilled fruit salad or wrapped in ham. [60] Calabrian wines include Greco di Bianco, Bivongi, Cirò, Dominici, Lamezia, Melissa, Pollino, Sant'Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto, San Vito di Luzzi, Savuto, Scavigna, and Verbicaro.

Calabrese pizza has a Neapolitan-based structure with fresh tomato sauce and a cheese base, but is unique because of its spicy flavor. Some of the ingredients included in a Calabrese pizza are thinly sliced hot soppressata, hot capicola, hot peppers, and fresh mozzarella.

Campania Edit

Campania extensively produces tomatoes, peppers, spring onions, potatoes, artichokes, fennel, lemons, and oranges which all take on the flavor of volcanic soil. The Gulf of Naples offers fish and seafood. Campania is one of the largest producers and consumers of pasta in Italy, especially spaghetti. In the regional cuisine, pasta is prepared in various styles that can feature tomato sauce, cheese, clams, and shellfish. [61]

Spaghetti alla puttanesca is a popular dish made with olives, tomatoes, anchovies, capers, chili peppers, and garlic. The region is well-known also for its mozzarella production (especially from the milk of water buffalo) that's used in a variety of dishes, including parmigiana (shallow fried eggplant slices layered with cheese and tomato sauce, then baked). Desserts include struffoli (deep fried balls of dough), ricotta-based pastiera i sfogliatelle, and rum-dipped babà. [61]

Originating in Neapolitan cuisine, pizza has become popular in many different parts of the world. [62] Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce, cheese (usually mozzarella), and various toppings depending on the culture. Since the original pizza, several other types of pizzas have evolved.

Since Naples was the capital of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, its cuisine took much from the culinary traditions of all the Campania region, reaching a balance between dishes based on rural ingredients (pasta, vegetables, cheese) and seafood dishes (fish, crustaceans, mollusks). A vast variety of recipes is influenced by the local aristocratic cuisine, like timballo i Sartù di riso, pasta or rice dishes with very elaborate preparation, while the dishes coming from the popular traditions contain inexpensive but nutritionally healthy ingredients, like pasta with beans and other pasta dishes with vegetables.

Emilia-Romagna Edit

Emilia-Romagna is especially known for its egg and filled pasta made with soft wheat flour. The Romagna subregion is renowned for pasta dishes like cappelletti, garganelli, strozzapreti, sfoglia lorda, i tortelli alla lastra [ it] as well as cheeses such as squacquerone [ it] , Piadina snacks are also a specialty of the subregion.

Bologna and Modena are notable for pasta dishes like tortellini, lasagne, gramigna, and tagliatelle which are found also in many other parts of the region in different declinations, while Ferrara is known for cappellacci di zucca, pumpkin-filled dumplings, and Piacenza for Pisarei e faśö, wheat gnocchi with beans and lard. The celebrated balsamic vinegar is made only in the Emilian cities of Modena and Reggio Emilia, following legally binding traditional procedures. [63]

In the Emilia subregion, except Piacenza which is heavily influenced by the cuisines of Lombardy, rice is eaten to a lesser extent than the rest of northern Italy. Polenta, a maize-based side dish, is common in both Emilia and Romagna.

Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is produced in Reggio Emilia (also known for erbazzone, a kind of egg and vegetables quiche), Parma, Modena, and Bologna and is often used in cooking. Grana Padano cheese is produced in Piacenza.

Although the Adriatic coast is a major fishing area (well known for its eels and clams harvested in the Comacchio lagoon), the region is more famous for its meat products, especially pork-based, that include cold cuts such as Parma's pršuta, culatello, i Salame Felino [ it] Piacenza's pancetta, coppa, and salami Bologna's mortadella i salame rosa Zampone Modena [ it] , cotechino, i cappello del prete [ it] and Ferrara's salama da sugo [ it] . Piacenza is also known for some dishes prepared with horse and donkey meat. Regional desserts include zuppa inglese (custard-based dessert made with sponge cake and Alchermes liqueur),panpepato (Christmas cake made with pepper, chocolate, spices, and almonds), tenerina (butter and chocolate cake) and torta degli addobbi (rice and milk cake).

Friuli-Venezia Giulia Edit

Friuli-Venezia Giulia conserved, in its cuisine, the historical links with Austria-Hungary. Udine and Pordenone, in the western part of Friuli, are known for their traditional San Daniele del Friuli ham, Montasio cheese, and Frico cheese dish. Other typical dishes are pitina (meatballs made of smoked meats), game, and various types of gnocchi i palenta.

The majority of the eastern regional dishes are heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, Slovene and Croatian cuisines: typical dishes include Istrian stew (soup of beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, bacon, and spare ribs), Vienna sausages, goulash, ćevapi, apple strudel, gugelhupf. Pork can be spicy and is often prepared over an open hearth called a fogolar. Collio Goriziano, Friuli Isonzo, Colli Orientali del Friuli, and Ramandolo are well-known denominazione di origine controllata regional wines.

But the seafood from the Adriatic is also used in this area. While the tuna fishing has declined, the anchovies from the Gulf of Trieste off Barcola (in the local dialect: "Sardoni barcolani") are a special and sought-after delicacy. [64] [65] [66]

Liguria Edit

Liguria is known for herbs and vegetables (as well as seafood) in its cuisine. Savory pies are popular, mixing greens and artichokes along with cheeses, milk curds, and eggs. Onions and olive oil are used. Because of a lack of land suitable for wheat, the Ligurians use chickpeas in farinata and polenta-like panissa. The former is served plain or topped with onions, artichokes, sausage, cheese or young anchovies. [67] Farinata is typically cooked in a wood-fired oven, similar to southern pizzas. Furthermore, fresh fish features heavily in Ligurian cuisine. Baccala, or salted cod, features prominently as a source of protein in coastal regions. It is traditionally prepared in a soup.

Hilly districts use chestnuts as a source of carbohydrates. Ligurian pastas include corzetti, typically stamped with traditional designs, from the Polcevera valley pansoti [ it] , a triangular shaped ravioli filled with vegetables piccagge, pasta ribbons made with a small amount of egg and served with artichoke sauce or pesto sauce trenette, made from whole wheat flour cut into long strips and served with pesto boiled beans and potatoes and trofie, a Ligurian gnocchi made from whole grain flour and boiled potatoes, made into a spiral shape and often tossed in pesto. [67] Many Ligurians emigrated to Argentina in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, influencing the cuisine of the country (which was otherwise dominated by meat and dairy products that the narrow Ligurian hinterland would have not allowed). Pesto, sauce made from basil and other herbs, is uniquely Ligurian, and features prominently among Ligurian pastas.

Lazio Edit

Pasta dishes based on the use of guanciale (unsmoked bacon prepared with pig's jowl or cheeks) are often found in Lazio, such as pasta alla carbonara and pasta all'amatriciana. Another pasta dish of the region is arrabbiata, with spicy tomato sauce. The regional cuisine widely use offal, resulting in dishes like the entrail-based rigatoni sa pajata sauce and coda alla vaccinara. [68]

Iconic of Lazio is cheese made from ewes' milk (Pecorino Romano), porchetta (savory, fatty, and moist boneless pork roast) and Frascati white wine. The influence of the ancient Jewish community can be noticed in the Roman cuisine's traditional carciofi alla giudia. [68]

Lombardy Edit

The regional cuisine of Lombardy is heavily based upon ingredients like maize, rice, beef, pork, butter, and lard. Rice dishes are very popular in this region, often found in soups as well as risotto. The best-known version is risotto alla milanese [ it] , flavoured with saffron. Due to its characteristic yellow color, it is often called risotto giallo. The dish is sometimes served with ossobuco (cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth). [69]

Other regional specialities include cotoletta alla milanese (a fried breaded cutlet of veal similar to Wiener schnitzel, but cooked "bone-in"), cassoeula (a typically winter dish prepared with cabbage and pork), Mostarda (rich condiment made with candied fruit and a mustard flavoured syrup), Valtellina's bresaola (air-dried salted beef), pizzoccheri (a flat ribbon pasta made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour cooked along with greens, cubed potatoes, and layered with pieces of Valtellina Casera cheese), casoncelli (a kind of stuffed pasta, usually garnished with melted butter and sage, typical of Brescia) and tortelli di zucca [ it] (a type of ravioli with pumpkin filling, usually garnished with melted butter and sage or tomato). [70]

Regional cheeses include Grana Padano, Gorgonzola, Crescenza, Robiola, and Taleggio (the plains of central and southern Lombardy allow intensive cattle farming). Polenta is common across the region. Regional desserts include the famous panettone (soft sweet bread with raisins and candied citron and orange chunks).

Marche Edit

On the coast of Marche, fish and seafood are produced. Inland, wild and domestic pigs are used for sausages and hams. These hams are not thinly sliced, but cut into bite-sized chunks. Suckling pig, chicken, and fish are often stuffed with rosemary or fennel fronds and garlic before being roasted or placed on the spit. [71]

Ascoli, Marche's southernmost province, is well known for olive ascolane [ it] , (stoned olives stuffed with several minced meats, egg, and Parmesan, then fried). [72] Another well-known Marche product are the Maccheroncini di Campofilone [ it] , from little town of Campofilone, a kind of hand-made pasta made only of hard grain flour and eggs, cut so thin that melts in one's mouth.

Piedmont Edit

Between the Alps and the Po valley, featuring a large number of different ecosystems, the Piedmont region offers the most refined and varied cuisine of the Italian peninsula. As a point of union between traditional Italian and French cuisine, Piedmont is the Italian region with the largest number of cheeses with protected geographical status and wines under DOC. It is also the region where both the Slow Food association and the most prestigious school of Italian cooking, the University of Gastronomic Sciences, were founded. [73]

Piedmont is a region where gathering nuts, mushrooms, and cardoons, as well as hunting and fishing, are commonplace. Truffles, garlic, seasonal vegetables, cheese, and rice feature in the cuisine. Wines from the Nebbiolo grape such as Barolo and Barbaresco are produced as well as wines from the Barbera grape, fine sparkling wines, and the sweet, lightly sparkling, Moscato d'Asti. The region is also famous for its Vermouth and Ratafia production. [73]

Castelmagno is a prized cheese of the region. Piedmont is also famous for the quality of its Carrù beef (particularly bue grasso, "fat ox"), hence the tradition of eating raw meat seasoned with garlic oil, lemon, and salt carpaccio Brasato al vino, wine stew made from marinated beef and boiled beef served with various sauces. [73]

The food most typical of the Piedmont tradition are the traditional agnolotti (pasta folded over with roast beef and vegetable stuffing), paniscia (a typical dish of Novara, a kind of risotto with Arborio rice or Maratelli rice, the typical kind of Saluggia beans, onion, Barbera wine, lard, salami, season vegetables, salt and pepper), taglierini (thinner version of tagliatelle), bagna cauda (sauce of garlic, anchovies, olive oil, and butter), and bicerin (hot drink made of coffee, chocolate, and whole milk). Piedmont is one of the Italian capitals of pastry and chocolate in particular, with products like Nutella, gianduiotto, i marron glacé that are famous worldwide. [73]

Sardinia Edit

Suckling pig and wild boar are roasted on the spit or boiled in stews of beans and vegetables, thickened with bread. Herbs such as mint and myrtle are widely used in the regional cuisine. Sardinia also has many special types of bread, made dry, which keeps longer than high-moisture breads. [74]

Also baked are carasau hleb civraxu [ it] , coccoi a pitzus [ it] , a highly decorative bread, and pistocu [ it] made with flour and water only, originally meant for herders, but often served at home with tomatoes, basil, oregano, garlic, and a strong cheese. Rock lobster, scampi, squid, tuna, and sardines are the predominant seafoods. [74]

Casu marzu is a very strong cheese produced in Sardinia, but is of questionable legality due to hygiene concerns. [75]

Sicily Edit

Sicily shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island over the last two millennia. Although its cuisine undoubtedly has a predominantly Italian base, Sicilian food also has Spanish, Greek and Arab influences. Dionysus is said to have introduced wine to the region: a trace of historical influence from Ancient Greece. [76]

The ancient Romans introduced lavish dishes based on goose. The Byzantines favored sweet and sour flavors and the Arabs brought sugar, citrus, rice, spinach, and saffron. The Normans and Hohenstaufens had a fondness for meat dishes. The Spanish introduced items from the New World including chocolate, maize, turkey, and tomatoes. [76]

Much of the island's cuisine encourages the use of fresh vegetables such as eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes, as well as fish such as tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, and swordfish. In Trapani, in the extreme western corner of the island, North African influences are clear in the use of various couscous based dishes, usually combined with fish. [77] Mint is used extensively in cooking unlike the rest of Italy.

Traditional specialties from Sicily include arancini (a form of deep-fried rice croquettes), pasta alla Norma, caponata, pani ca meusa, and a host of desserts and sweets such as cannoli, granita, and cassata. [78]

Typical of Sicily is Marsala, a red, fortified wine similar to Port and largely exported. [79] [80]

Trentino-Alto Adige Edit

Before the Council of Trent in the middle of the 16th century, the region was known for the simplicity of its peasant cuisine. When the prelates of the Catholic Church established there, they brought the art of fine cooking with them. Later, also influences from Venice and the Austrian Habsburg Empire came in. [81]

The Trentino subregion produces various types of sausages, polenta, yogurt, cheese, potato cake, funnel cake, and freshwater fish. In the Südtirol (Alto Adige) subregion, due to the German-speaking majority population, strong Austrian and Slavic influences prevail. The most renowned local product is traditional speck juniper-flavored ham which, as Speck Alto Adige, is regulated by the European Union under the protected geographical indication (PGI) status. Goulash, knödel, apple strudel, kaiserschmarrn, krapfen, rösti, spätzle, and rye bread are regular dishes, along with potatoes, dumpling, homemade sauerkraut, and lard. [81] The territory of Bolzano is also reputed for its Müller-Thurgau white wines.


Sastojci

Korak 1

Cook potatoes in a large pot of boiling water over medium-high heat until tender when pierced with the tip of a knife, 40–45 minutes drain. As soon as potatoes are cool enough to handle, peel and pass through a potato ricer into a large bowl (if left to cool before ricing, potatoes will become gummy). Pustite da se ohladi.

Korak 2

Sprinkle 1¼ cups flour and 2 tsp. salt over potatoes and, using your hands, make a well in the center. Pour egg into the well and stir in with a wooden spoon. Turn out dough onto a floured surface and gently knead, dusting with more flour as needed, until smooth but not elastic (be careful not to overwork), about 2 minutes. Divide dough into 8 pieces. Roll each piece into a 24"-long rope about ½" thick. Cut into ½" pieces, dust with flour, and arrange in a single layer on a lightly floured rimmed baking sheet.

Korak 3

Toss butter, Parmesan, and sage in a large bowl. Working in batches, cook gnocchi in large pot of boiling salted water until they float to the surface, about 2 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, gently place on top of butter mixture as you go. Once all gnocchi are cooked, add ½ cup cooking liquid and gently toss everything together, adding more cooking liquid as needed, until butter and cheese are melted and a creamy sauce forms.


Capannina: Italian Taste in San Francisco

Capannina is a little Italian restaurant in San Francisco, located near La Marina district, the freak area of the city.

Capannina is a little Italian restaurant in San Francisco, located near La Marina district, the freak area of the city. Its logo intentionally recalls that of Campari, one of the most famous Italian brands abroad.

In this homey trattoria, you will find a sober and welcoming setting, where all the details are cared with elegance and style. An example? The famous Italian award-winning chandeliers by Artemide, an homage to another Italian excellence in the world. And then the pink marble and the extraordinary bar in typical Italian style.

The restaurants'staff is friendly, attentive and tactful at the same time a lady makes home-made pasta every day. The choice of Italian dishes and wines is wide, the freshness and quality of ingredients is a rule.

The list of homemade desserts also deserve praise but a special place is deserved to cheeses: at Capannina the variety of specialty cheeses is truly unique, by far one of the richest and most varied ever seen on a menu. It includes a huge variety of aged and fresh cheeses like Italian mozzarella, burrata, pecorino and ricotta, all coming directly from Italy every few days.

Here are some of the delicious dishes you can try at Capannina, without spending a fortune.


The Centre of Italy

Tortellini and passatelli, strictly in broth, tagliatelle and lasagna, but also pumpkin tortelli and herbs, ham and culatello dominate the tables of Emilia Romagna, home of good food especially meat. Although there are some exceptions: in Modena, at Christmas they eat preserved fish like cod. There you can taste spaghetti with tuna, mackerel, anchovies and tomato, but also stewed or fried cod. It's the feast of the seven fishes menu.

And the cod is also a protagonist on the tables of La Vigilia in Lazio, where it is served together with fried mixed vegetable and the capon. In Rome, at the Vigilia, you can not miss the fish soup or pasta and broccoli in arzilla broth. You can also find spaghetti with anchovies, fried eel and puntarelle salad. And finally: the nougat and pampepato, with lots of dried fruit. On the 25th lunch they eat baked lamb with potatoes and cappelletti in broth, but also boiled meat or turkey.

The Tuscans taste cooutons with livers, roasted duck and stuffed capon. They also cook the bardiccio, a spicy pork sausage with fennel.


Florida: Beet Mezzaluna, Macchialina (Miami Beach)

Queens-born, Italy-raised chef Michael Pirolo spent time at some of Italy’s finest restaurants and enjoyed a stint as chef de cuisine at Scott Conant’s Scarpetta before branching out on his own in Florida with Macchialina in 2012. The menu is primarily composed of antipasti and house-made pasta, and we strongly suggest you try as many of the pastas as possible (especially on Thursdays, when they’re just $10). The beet mezzaluna, little half-moons filled with a beet-based mixture tossed with a simple sauce of brown butter and hazelnuts and topped with ricotta salata, is nothing short of jaw-dropping.


Sadržaj

The cuisine of Italy has many unique dishes and foods.

Zuppe e salse (soups and sauces) Edit

    – an Italian soup that was originally a peasant food. Historically, its primary ingredients were water, stale bread, onion, tomato and olive oil, [8] along with various vegetables and leftover foods that may have been available. [9][10]
  • Agghiotta di lumache (Sicilian snail soup) broth based seafood stew, served with grilled bread
  • Grine sauce
  • Minestra di pasta con pesce – a meat-based sauce commonly served with pasta
  • Boreto
  • Minestra di fagioli

Pane (bread) Edit

Common pizzas Edit

    – an Italian seafood pizza that may be served with scampi, mussels or squid [11] – folded over dough usually filled with ricotta and other ingredients – a pizza based on rosemary and olive oil, sometimes served with prosciutto, usually served as appetizer
  • Pizza ai funghi e salsiccia – pizza with mushroom and sausage or boscaiola, with mozzarella, mushrooms and sausages, with or without tomato – (Italian for pizza by the slice — literally "by the cut") [12] is a variety of pizza baked in large rectangular trays, [13] and generally sold in rectangular or square slices by weight, with prices marked per kilogram or per 100 grams. [14] This type of pizza was invented in Rome, Italy, and is common throughout Italy. [15] – (four cheese pizza) with four different cheeses, typically Parmesan, Gorgonzola, Ricotta and Mozzarella (sometimes melted together, sometimes in sectors), with (rossa, red) or without tomato sauce (bianca, white) [16]
  • Pizza alla napoletana (or Neapolitan) – tomato, mozzarella and anchovy – with tomato, mozzarella, mushrooms, artichokes, black and green olives – tomato and mozzarella
  • Pizza marinara – tomato, oregano and garlic – tomato, mozzarella and onions (four seasons pizza) – based on tomato and divided in four sectors, one for each season:
  • Pizza romana (Roman pizza) – tomato, mozzarella, capers and anchovy
  • Pizza siciliana (Sicilian pizza) – tomato, mozzarella, capers, olive and anchovy

Pasta varieties Edit

Pasta dishes Edit

  • Bucatini all'Amatriciana, bucatini coi funghi, bucatini alla Sorrentina
  • Cannelloni al ragù, cannelloni ai carciofi
  • Linguine alle vongole - with clam sauce
  • Pansotti alla genovese – a type of huge ravioli
  • Pasta al pesto , rigatoni al forno con salsa aurora
  • Spaghetti alla Carrettiera, Spaghetti bolognese, Spaghetti al nero di seppia, spaghetti alla Puttanesca, Spaghetti con la bottarga, spaghetti all' aglio, olio e peperoncino, spaghetti indiavolati, Spaghetti Siracusani, spaghetti alla carbonara
  • Tagliatelle alla boscaiola, Tagliatelle ai carciofi, Tagliatelle ai funghi, Tagliatelle al pomodoro, Tagliatelle al sugo di lepre, Tagliatelle al ragù
  • Tortelloni alla zucca
  • Tortellini, Cjarsons
  • Tortelloni ricotta and spinaci
  • Trofie al pesto, trofie al sugo di noci

Rice dishes Edit

Rice (riso) dishes are very common in Northern Italy, especially in the Lombardia and Veneto regions, though rice dishes are found throughout the country.


Spiaggia -- elegant food, sublime service

Just wanted to report on the lovely dinner my husband and I enjoyed at Spiaggia on Saturday night, for our anniversary. We had been there years ago and I recognize that it's no longer cutting edge, but I recalled a fine meal that time before and had wanted to return. We were not at all disappointed. I don't have a digital camera nor a photographic memory, so I can't produce pictures or recall the names and preparations of all the dishes we had, but I began with a lovely appetizer with fish presented three ways, then a rustic spaghetti with lobster, and then fish (can't even remember which kind now -- bad reporting, I realize) very simply prepared with an herb crust and absolutely heavenly marinated cherry tomatoes. My husband, not a fish guy, began with loin of rabbit, then gnocchi, and the filet of beef. All really wonderful, but what made the evening so nice and what I want to emphasize was the tremendously cordial service -- we had to wait a bit for our table, and were treated to Champaign at the bar (they knew it was our anniversary.) Once we were seated, at a window table, the meal was perfectly paced and the servers were informative and friendly without being unctuous. Finally, when I hesitated over which dessert to get -- finally settling on chestnut-chocolate filled beignets -- they brought me, on the house, my second choice as well, a lemon panna cotta, saying that one shouldn't have to want for anything when celebrating an anniversary. My husband thus got to eat his hazelnut-chocolate terrine and two of my little beignets, as he doesn’t much care for lemon, and I found the panna cotta just divine. All in all, we felt indulged and deliciously fed, and thus had a delightful time.

One note related to another discussion: we were both nicely dressed, in accordance with the restaurant’s dress code (jacket required). We were there fairly late, though, and did notice several parties not exactly subscribing to the letter of the law – particularly one gregarious couple we noticed chatting with some folks at a table on our way out. The man was dressed in a fleece vest and jeans. My husband asked the hostess on the way out if he had been mistaken about the jacket requirement, given the way that fellow was dressed. No, we were told, they do ask that gentlemen wear jackets – but the man attired in the fleece vest happened to be the President of the Levy corporation. So if you own the place, I guess, you can wear what you want.

You know, in order for them to call it Champaign, it has to come from Champaign. I kid! I kid because I love.

Thanks for the report. My wife and I have our big #9 coming up and this sounds like a great time to try Spiaggia neither of us has ever been.

Toni G. wrote: "Eat, drink and dangle your participles"

Seems to me a very strong candidate for the official LTH contributor mission statement---direct, succinct, and with just a suggestion of the louche.

I never was able to write a review of my meal at Spiaggia from a few months back. I'll simply add that it was nearly flawless in both food and service.

I had a gnocchi with truffle dish that redefined any previous notion of gnocchi. So light and pillowy. I'd love to one day find someone who does this simple pasta as well as Spiaggia, perhaps without the pricetag. Another standout was the wood-seared scallops, again a redefining experience with scallops. The sweetness and sea flavors were just perfect.

I once had some gnocchi at, of all places, cafe le coq that were as pillowy as I can imagine gnocchi getting. It was an app, so it's pretty cheap to find out.

edit: And I see I'm not the only one who thinks so:

The son required a celebratory dinner for his escape from HS, and his parameters were simple - fancy Italian. Having recently enjoyed a lovely luncheon there, my decision was easy - Spiaggia.

The family is trained well, so we went overboard. I was discouraged from taking pictures (not too hard - as readers will note, I almost never do) so you must be satisfied with my narrative.

Short summary - an excellent meal, one or two slight misses, but they were more than offset by the hits. But, as I have noted before, in this level of place I look for more than overall excellence and in total this meal did not quite make it.

We passed on the degustazione menus though they both looked wonderful and likely would have been less expensive than what we had. The more expensive menu is themed on aged balsamic vinegar which attracted me, but I was following not leading this evening and it was not chosen.

The amuse was a white anchovy on a bed of something crispy (I was drinking not writing, sorry) with herbs and an herb vinaigrette. We started with baby vegetables with Bagna Cauda - tiny slices of sqash, carrot, radish, some slivers of things I did not recognize and more. Nice, simple. The bride went with the langoustinos, green beans, coriander and coriander seed. Rich, deep crustacean flavor highlighted by the light herbs. And the son went with the Gnocchi in ricotta and black truffle sauce - a sinfully earthy and rich dish that he had to defend against the forays of his fellow diners. If I had to eat just one thing.

For the pasta course, I had the pecorino raviolini with fava beans and mint. The sauce seemed to be butter and a reduction of pecorino - liquid gold. So rather than the light summery dish I expected, it was again deep, rich, buttery and joyfully sinful. For his second pasta course, the son went with the Agnolotti, filled with a delicate ground veal, fennel pollen and crispy veal breast. I have had this before, and it was again blissful - savory, almost sweet veal in a brown butter sauce with the light touch of fennel pollen and the crispy texture of the veal shavings. The Bride chose the Risotto with porcini mushrooms, yet another creamy, rich and earthy dish. Finally, the daughter chose the Ravioletto filled with crescenza cheese with Parmesan brown butter rosemary crust and toasted garlic. A bit too big and cheesy for most of us, though when one got a piece with less cheese and more of the crust and pasta, butter and garlic it was pretty tasty.

Somehow, I did not get a taste of the Son's grilled sea bass with white beans, rapini and olive sauce. He seemed to have no trouble finishing it, though. A pretty, little crisp filet, sitting on a bed of green and white, with tiny bits of red pepper to complete the Italian motif. Spicy pepper, too, he reported. Aside from the chocolate dessert, the Son definitely ordered the best of all of us.

There are, to my mind, three places in Chicago where one can get a transcendental pork belly - any place Paul Kahan is associated with, Mandarin Kitchen, and Spiaggia. I am sure there are others, and I need to know, so feel free to enlighten me. The daughter happily chose the grilled pork loin, and slow roasted pork belly (how slow, I wonder - days or weeks?) with kale, honey, coriander and fennel. She liked the loin, which suffered by comparison to the belly for me - sweet, savory, rich and tender inside with a well-seasoned crust. A great pork belly is a symphony of textures, flavors and sensations that explode and caress in the mouth - and that was here. The fennel and honey added a light and sweet touch that was particularly interesting.

The last two main courses were not so interesting for me. The bride's filet, wood-roasted, with a marrow and herb crust, mushrooms, onions and purple potato puree looked wonderful, but suffered in comparison to all the other earthy, rich dishes that proceeded. Probably a pretty good dish, in most cases, and I do love mushrooms (hen of the woods in this instance), but it did not stand out.

And my guinea hen, also wood-roasted, wrapped in pancetta on potato puree with black truffle sauce suffered the same problem - not different enough from other dishes that preceeded it, and the guinea hen was a somewhat dry and bland medium upon which to enjoy the truffle sauce. Perhaps if I had avoided sampling the Gnocchi to start, I would not have had this issue.

We finished with a cheese course and dessert - they have a very good cheese selection, and a nice selection of sorbetti which makes a light, sweet conclusion to such a meal.

I particularly like the wine selection - we went with a Falanghina from Campania and a half bottle of Luce - an intense red blend from the same region, more or less. Lots of interesting wines from different regions of Italy and at different price points. I often take my own wine to dinner these days, but Spiaggia has a wine list I enjoy exploring.

All in all, an excellent meal, and yet. Next time I might do what my son did and have two pastas and a fish course. Perhaps it was how we ordered, but the saucing and seasoning of the dishes - consisting primarily of butter, intense earthy mushrooms and usually a touch of cheese, admittedly with different herbs and seasonings on top of the base, but the base was similar - became a bit repetitious (even though butter and mushrooms are flavors I love). So despite the generally excellent preparations, wonderful ingredients, and deft hand at seasoning, I ended up wanting something different, some contrast, some different note to touch a different set of taste buds.

Having said that, I could happily make a meal of the Gnocchi, Agnolotti, cheese course, sorbetti and a couple of wines every day for a year. The pasta - all house made the same day and passed over a pot of boiling water to cook, hardly more - are without peer. But for the overall meal another place that is mining a similar vein, Spago in LA, delivered a meal that was more interesting in total ordering a la carte.


Italian Cuisine – List of every Italian dish from soups and sauces to pasta, bread, coffee specialities to desserts and street food

The Italian cuisine has so much to offer. Loved and devoured worldwide, so many iconic Italian dishes are a regular on peoples plates on every continent. Pasta Pomodoro, Pizza Margherita, a creamy Risotto or Tiramisu and Espresso. What would the world be, without those yummy specialities? What most people don’t realize at first, Italian cuisine is actually pretty basic and down to earth. The ingredients are usually simple and widely available, yet high-quality products make such a difference in taste. Sun-kissed tomatoes, organically grown basil, handmade dough and original buffalo mozzarella with some Sicilian olive oil, and the perfect dinner are ready in almost no time. With such a varied cuisine a Dolce Vita definitely seems possible. For either inspiration or to give you a general overview, below I have accumulated the ultimate list of every Italian dish. From regional specialities to general favourites. Soups, Breads, all the different kinds of pasta or desserts. Devour into the Italian cuisine with me! If you find a link next to a certain dish, this means a recipe is available right here on JoyDellaVita. For more recipes, make sure to have a look at the Recipes from around the World Category for more international delicacies.


Pogledajte video: PASTA WITH THE FLAVORS OF SALENTO To cook after the beach Recipe by Chef Max Mariola (Oktobar 2021).