Novi recepti

Čekajte: Naranče su obojene da izgledaju "Narandžastije?!?" Da. Evo šta trebate znati

Čekajte: Naranče su obojene da izgledaju

Odrastao sam na Floridi i nisam imao pojma.

Boja za hranu može se naći na mnogo iznenađujućih (i naizgled zdravih) mjesta - poput jogurta ili kiselih krastavaca - ali pokazalo se da čak i naizgled "cijela" hrana poput voća može sakriti i neželjeni sastojak. Da, neke naranče su obojene kako bi izgledale "više narančaste".

Kad sam prvi put naletio na ovu tvrdnju, nisam mislio da postoji bilo koji način koji bi mogao biti istinit. Ispostavilo se da FDA stoji iza ove prakse od kasnih 1950 -ih. Jedna od njihovih smjernica politike kaže: "Uobičajena je praksa bojanje kožica naranči u određenim područjima uzgoja naranče u zemlji zbog klimatskih ili kulturnih uvjeta zbog kojih naranče sazrijevaju dok su još zelene boje."

Budite u toku sa tim šta zdravo znači sada.

Prijavite se na naš dnevni bilten za više sjajnih članaka i ukusnih, zdravih recepata.

Više o umjetnim bojama i bojama za hranu:

Odrastao sam na jugu Floride i sjećam se da su naranče na susjednom drveću bile drugačije boje od onih u trgovini (malo prljavije, više bež-narančaste), ali samo sam zaključio da ne bi napravio dobru naranču farmer. Nikada zapravo nisam spojio dva i dva.

Prema FDA, naranče se mogu bojati na jedan od dva načina. Prvo, umjetno bojilo pod nazivom "Citrus Red 2" može se dodati narančama "koje nisu namijenjene niti se koriste za preradu". Prijevod: Ako se od njega ne pravi sok od naranče, na kore se može poprskati crvena boja kako bi izgledale narančasto. Drugi način na koji se dodaje crvena br. 2 - vrijedno je napomenuti da se to obično radi samo u komercijalnim aplikacijama - je putem plina etilena. Ovo ubrzava proces blanširanja, što se obično radi odmah nakon branja.

Iako citrusno crveno br. 2 može dobiti pečat odobrenja FDA -e, u velikim količinama može biti štetno za zdravlje ljudi. Zapravo, Mreža toksikoloških podataka američke medicinske biblioteke NIH -a kaže da je crvena br. 2 "vjerovatno kancerogena" za ljude. Osim toga, postoje spekulacije o sintetičkim bojama koje utječu na ličnost i druge aspekte našeg zdravlja (jedan od naših nutricionista kaže da određene vrste izazivaju ADHD njenog sina.)

Ali ako kupujete u trgovini, vjerojatno ne biste znali je li naranča obojena; nažalost, od njih se ne traži da nose etiketu koja deklarira upotrebu umjetnih boja. Dakle, kako izbjeći citrusno crveno br. 2?

Pa, mogli biste oguliti naranču i pojesti je (crvena se boja ne može koristiti nigdje osim u kori); mogli ste kupiti organske naranče (ne dopuštaju boje); ili ste mogli kupiti naranče uzgojene u Kaliforniji ili Arizoni (ove su države zabranile citrusno crveno br. 2.)

Zaključak: Naš nutricionist, Brierley Horton, MS, RD, kaže: „Ako redovno koru ljuštite i bombonite, možda ćete htjeti kupiti organske naranče. Ali ako pravite jedan recept, nemojte se osjećati kao da morate istrčati u trgovinu. Većina ljudi jede unutrašnjost citrusa, a koristi od onoga što se nalazi unutra nadmašuju preostalu boju izvana. ”


Kako popraviti narančastu kosu nakon izbjeljivanja - 6 brzih savjeta

Pokušavate skinuti nekoliko nijansi s kose, očekujući lijepu nijansu plavuše, ali umjesto toga na kraju dobijete mesinganu naranču. Iako narančasta kosa nije najgora boja na svijetu, može biti krajnje razočaravajuće završiti s njom nakon sesije za izbjeljivanje, posebno ako ispadne neujednačena i mrlja. Na kraju ste prisiljeni otići u salon kako biste popravili narandžu.

Završiti s narančastom kosom nakon izbjeljivanja nije neuobičajeno. U stvari, ako pokušate izbijeliti vrlo tamnu kosu, velika je vjerovatnoća da ćete 8 od 10 puta završiti s mjedenom kosom. Stoga biste trebali znati nekoliko savjeta koji vam mogu pomoći da se prirodno riješite narandžaste boje kose.

U ovom ćete članku saznati kako popraviti narančastu kosu nakon izbjeljivanja i pet različitih načina kako to učiniti. Prije nego počnemo sa sitnicama o tome kako popraviti kosu od mesinga, razgovarajmo o tome zašto vaša kosa postaje narandžasta.


Kada ubrati naranču

Vrijeme berbe naranči varira ovisno o sorti. Branje pomorandži može se dogoditi bilo kada od marta do decembra ili januara. Korisno je znati koju sortu naranče imate da biste odredili pravo vrijeme za branje naranči.

Da budemo precizniji, ovi savjeti bi trebali pomoći:

  • Narandže od pupka spremne su za berbu od novembra do juna.
  • Naranče u Valenciji spremne su u ožujku do listopada.
  • Cara Cara pomorandže sazrijevaju od decembra do maja.
  • Narandže Clementine su spremne u oktobru, kao i Satsuma do decembra ili januara.
  • Slatke narandže od ananasa spremne su za berbu od novembra do februara.

Kao što vidite, određivanje vrste narandže koju imate daje naslutiti kada je voće spremno. Općenito, većina žetve naranče odvija se od kraja rujna do ranog proljeća.


Boja

Određivanje zrelosti prema boji kore često je teško jer naranče fizički reagiraju na hladnoću i toplinu kroz ozelenjavanje. Na primjer, topli zrak i tlo uzrokuju da kora ima zelenkastu nijansu, dok nadolazeća zimska hladnoća stimulira narančastu boju. Općenito, zrela naranča ima jednu četvrtinu kore koja pokazuje konzistentnu žutu do narančastu nijansu. Morate promatrati svoje plodove i donijeti obrazovanu odluku na temelju konzistentne boje i tipičnog vremena berbe sorte kako biste odredili pravo vrijeme branja.


Mandarine su mala sorta obične narandže sa labavom kožom, tipično slađa i manje kisela od većih pomorandži. Smatralo se da potječu iz Indije, putovali su po cijeloj Kini gdje su uzeli naziv "mandarina". Uputili su se u Englesku, a Euro su je spotaknuli do Italije, da bi na kraju stigli do marokanske luke Tanger, gdje su dobili drugo ime, "mandarina".

Jesu li mandarine i klementine ista stvar? Ukratko, nekako! Mandarine su manji potomak ili obična naranča. Budući da se mandarine lako križaju s drugim sortama citrusa i mogu rasti u brojnim klimatskim uvjetima, mnogi stvorene su sorte mandarina …oko 200! Evo najpopularnijih sorti mandarina:

  • Clementines: Ova slatka sorta obično je bez sjemenki i lako se ljušti, pa je odlična za djecu. Marke poput "Cuties" ili "Sweeties" obično koriste klementine (ali i činjenica! Kako različite sorte idu u i van sezone, ove će marke zamijeniti koje vrste mandarina uključuju u pakiranja)
  • Mandarine: Iako je “mandarina” prvobitno bila samo još jedna riječ za voće “mandarina”, izraz “tangerin ” počeo je dobivati ​​drugo značenje. Ono što nazivamo mandarinama u SAD -u obično je više trpko i ima dublju narančasto/crvenu boju od obične mandarine. Sorte mandarina uključuju Darby i Fairchild.
  • Satsuma: Ovo je sorta bez sjemena porijeklom iz Japana. Drvo je otpornije na hladnoću, pa ćete ih pronaći u hladnijoj klimi. Ova sorta ima debelu, ali nježnu kožu, što znači da se brzo ljušti, ali lako stvara modrice, pa je odlična za lokalnu hranu ili konzerviranje za isporuku.


Narančasti kolači tartufi

Za pripremu upotrijebite svježu naranču Narančasti kolači tartufi!

Jednostavna su i impresivna vrsta deserta za napraviti. A recept troši dosta svježe iscijeđenog soka od naranče ...

Ovaj recept koristi svježi sok od naranče … i koricu!

Samo ispecite moj jednostavan recept za tortu od narandže. A zatim ga usitnite u mrvice u procesoru hrane. Na pravi način "kolača", onda pomiješate te mrvice s malo glazura od krem ​​sira ... i još više te korice naranče! Izvadite malo mrvica pomiješanih s glazurom. Volim upotrijebiti svoju praktičnu proljetnu žlicu za tijesto od keksa. Ovo je zaista jedan od mojih omiljenih kuhinjskih alata i osigurava da svi vaši tartufi za kolače budu iste veličine.

U stvari, sve ih razvaljajte u loptice. Zatim ih stavite u zamrzivač na 15 minuta samo da se malo stegnu. U ovom trenutku možete odlučiti u šta ćete ih umočiti (ja sam koristila Wiltonove slatkiše) i šta ćete posipati po vrhu kako biste ih učinili lijepima.

Umočite ih jedan po jedan u otopljenu čokoladu, a zatim ih stavite na voštani papir da se osuše i stegnu.

Svaki čokoladni tartuf prelijte sa nečim pre nego što se čokolada stegne. Volim vrhunske tartufe s malim "nagovještajem" onoga što je unutra. Ovdje sam upotrijebio malo tanko narezane korice naranče koju sam kandirao u tavi s malo vode i šećera.

I evo još nekoliko ... neke sam prelila dodatnom čokoladom po vrhu, a zatim dodala dekor.

Bili su nekako veliki hit oko mene i kod odraslih i kod djece. Držim ih u frižideru tako da su lijepa, ledeno hladna poslastica u vrućim danima!


Plavi šampon je običan šampon koji sadrži blijede plave nijanse i boje. Umjesto da plavu kosu pretvore u plavu kosu, ovi šamponi ubrizgavaju toliko plave boje u kosu da ukloni narandžastu, jer se dvije boje nadopunjuju. Korištenje plavog šampona odličan je način za pojedince da se riješe narandže nakon izbjeljivanja, a da kosu ne izlažu još jačim kemikalijama.

Identificirali smo najbolju i raspravljati o njoj malo niže.

1. Joico Color Balance Blue šampon i regenerator

Specifikacije

Pros

Jedna od najočiglednijih prednosti Joico Color Balance Blue šampona i regeneratora je izravno u imenu – koji uključuje i šampon i regenerator! Plavi šampon je odličan način za ublažavanje neželjenih narandžastih i crvenih tonova nakon izbjeljivanja jer je komplementarna boja. Položit će neku nježnu plavu boju koja uklanja narančastu i vraća kosi prirodniju boju.

Ovaj šampon i regenerator su laki za upotrebu i omekšavaju kosu. Takođe pomaže da boja postane otpornija na blijeđenje s vremenom i NEĆE postati plava. Regenerator je lijep dodatak jer izbjeljivanje često ostavlja kosu lomljivom i mrtvom, a regenerator će joj vratiti mekoću, sjaj i život.

Cons

Ovaj proizvod dobro djeluje, ali može ostaviti plavu mrlju na koži ako se ne ispere temeljito.


TRANSCRIPT Eating the Rainbow: Ili, misterija narandžaste pomorandže, crvene M &Ms i plave maline

Ovo je transkript epizode Gastropod, Jedenje duge: Ili, misterija narandžaste pomorandže, crvenih M & ampM -ova i plave maline, prvi put objavljeno 21. aprila. To je ljubazno i ​​može sadržati greške.

NADIA BERENSTEIN: Mislim, mislim da svi možemo zamisliti kakav je okus arome plave maline. Mislim da verovatno ima više kiselog kiselog udara nego obični ukusi maline. Ili barem standardna plava malina. Ali zaista ne postoji#sve dok ima neku vrstu osnovne voćnosti i možda neku vrstu karakteriziranja komponenti maline, znate, ne mora se zavaravati - to ne izgleda kao da će neko konzumirati#8217 soda od plave maline na primjer, i recite, da, ovo je prilično dobro, ali volio bih da sam zapravo jeo prave plave maline.

NICOLA TWILLEY: Pa ja volim maline, one su najbolje bobice, nemojte mi se obraćati jer sam u pravu. No radimo li zaista cijelu epizodu o njima?

CYNTHIA GRABER: Ne, to je plavi dio maline - jer ova epizoda govori o boji naše hrane. I ovo je naravno Gastropod, podcast koji gleda na hranu kroz leće znanosti i povijesti. Ja sam Cynthia Graber.

TWILLEY: A ja sam Nicola Twilley. I u ovoj epizodi pratimo dugu! Ne mogu obećati posude sa zlatom, posebno u ovoj ekonomskoj klimi, ali dobit ćemo odgovore na važna pitanja poput: zašto su sve naše banane žute, a ne crvene? Šta se dogodilo sa crvenim?

GREBER: Kako su pomorandže postale narandžaste?

TWILLEY: Zašto su crveni M & ampM nestali tokom većine 1980 -ih? Ima li tu kakvih sočnih tračeva? Je li to bio citat provođenja vremena sa porodicom?

GREBER: I na kraju - šta je u svijetu plava malina i je li to zaista ona nijansa fluorescentno plave?

TWILLEY: Osim toga, ubijaju li nas sve ove divne boje?

BERENSTEIN: Pa, boja je izuzetno važna jer je to jedan od osnovnih načina na koji razumijemo ili percipiramo okus hrane koju jedemo.

GREBER: Nadia Berenstein je povjesničarka okusa, možda je se sjećate iz naše epizode o okusu, nazvane Savor Flavor. Ako niste čuli prvi put, trebali biste provjeriti.

TWILLEY: U toj epizodi smo puno pričali o tome kako je okus uglavnom okus plus miris. Ali, zapravo, Nadia kaže da boja utječe i na okus hrane. Više nego što mislite. Kad se ljudima posluži Sprite boje smeđe boje, misle da je to kola.

GRABER: Ovaj trik djeluje čak i na poznate vinske kritičare - dajte im bijelo vino crvene boje s bojom za hranu, a većina njih će pomisliti da je to crno vino i poetično će se izraziti o njegovim bobičastim notama.

BERENSTEIN: Škotski pekar je 1936. pokušao ovaj eksperiment sa želeima, među svojim osobljem. Pokušavao je pronaći radnika u svojoj tvornici ili radnike u svojoj tvornici koji imaju pouzdana čula okusa. Tako im je dao, na primjer, crveno obojene želee od ananasa i zeleno obojeni žele od limuna i pokušao pronaći ljude među svojim osobljem koji bi mogli ispravno identificirati okus iako je boja u suprotnosti s njihovim shvaćanjem kakvog bi okusa trebala biti. I zapravo je bio iznenađen kad je otkrio da vrlo mali broj ljudi to može izvesti.

GRABER: Boja može toliko promijeniti okus hrane da postane zapravo nejestiva. U sedamdesetima je postojao eksperiment u kojem su ljudi hranjeni obrokom bifteka, pomfrita i graška, a svjetlo je maskiralo boju hrane. Ali onda se to svjetlo za maskiranje boja ugasilo i ponovno upalilo normalno svjetlo, i-odrezak je bio plav, pomfrit je bio zelen, grašak je bio crven! I ispitanicima je pozlilo do stomaka. Jedan povraćao.

TWILLEY: Ali nije da je boja tradicionalno bila važnija od ostalih osjetila kada je hrana u pitanju. Na kraju krajeva, vid je samo jedan od načina na koji su naša osjetila evoluirala da shvate šta je dobro jesti. Ranije, kada ste odlučivali da li ćete jesti, recimo, breskvu, mogli biste je namirisati i osjetiti njenu težinu u ruci, kao i pogledati boju njene kože da vidite da li je zrela. Ne biste sudili samo očima.

GREBER: Ali iako je boja oduvijek jedan od načina na koji naš mozak ima smisla za ono što ćemo jesti, izgled hrane počeo je postajati posebno važan prije više od jednog stoljeća.

BERENSTEIN: Tako su se krajem 19., početkom 20. stoljeća, kada su se sve vrste hrane ili namirnice pakirane ili proizvedene na nove načine, u dalekim tvornicama, a ne kod kuće, počele pojavljivati ​​na tržištu. Pitanje s tim nije bilo samo kako bi ove nove vrste hrane trebale imati okus, već i kako bi trebale izgledati?

TWILLEY: Do kasnih 1800 -ih, američka hrana se mijenjala jako brzo - već ste nas čuli da pričamo o tome, ali ovo je bilo vrijeme uspona industrijske prerade i proizvodnje hrane. A onda je, zahvaljujući hlađenju, odnosno mojoj životnoj strasti, hrana sve više slala na velike udaljenosti od mjesta na kojem se uzgajala do ljudi koji su je namjeravali jesti.

GREBER: Sve je to značilo da ljudi nisu vidjeli hranu kako raste ili je sami brali ili lovili, možda nisu imali načina da znaju kako bi se nešto trebalo osjećati kad je zrelo, pa su se morali još više osloniti na izgled hrane. Ubrzo im je pomogla još jedna nova tehnologija.

AI HISANO: Znači, ljudi su koristili tehnologije štampanja. Ali važna promjena bila je izum i sve veća upotreba štampe u boji, koja je postala popularnija 1920 -ih i 1930 -ih u Sjedinjenim Državama.

GREBER: Ai Hisano je predavač ekonomije na Univerzitetu u Kyotu, a napisala je i knjigu o hrani i bojama pod nazivom Vizualizujući ukus: Kako je poslovanje promenilo izgled onoga što jedete. Njena knjiga priča o tome kako su boje postale sve važnije u prošlom stoljeću i kako je veliki posao zapravo oblikovao naša očekivanja o tome kakve bi boje trebala biti naša hrana.

TWILLEY: Ruku pod ruku sa porastom pristupačne štampe u boji došao je i porast nacionalnih časopisa. I ti su časopisi bili puni oglasa u boji za hranu i distribuirani od obale do sjajne obale.

HISANO: Dakle, potrošači su, recimo, u New Yorku i San Franciscu gledali istu sliku u istoj boji.

GREBER: Otprilike u isto vrijeme, pakiranje hrane postalo je uobičajenije-da, radili smo i cijelu epizodu o tome, nazvanu Izvan kutije, a zatim je izmišljen celofan, pa je i ambalaža postala prozirna.

TWILLEY: Naravno, celofan je značio da više ne možete dodirivati ​​niti mirisati svoju hranu, prije nego što ste je kupili - ali ste definitivno mogli vidjeti koje je boje!

GREBER: Kao što smo rekli, uvijek smo koristili boju kao jedan od načina na koji smo shvatili kakav bi okus hrane trebao biti - samo razmislite o boji zrele jagode ili odvratno plavom odrezku ili bijelom vinu obojenom u crveno.

TWILLEY: Ali sada, sa ovom novom pakovanom hranom na daljinu, boja je bila sve.

GREBER: I konačno, izumljena je posljednja tehnologija: način mjerenja boje. Nove mašine, poput spektrofotometra, mogle bi procijeniti vrlo posebnu i specifičnu boju hrane, pa su zamijenile subjektivno i individualno prosuđivanje očiju neke slučajne osobe.

TWILLEY: Odjednom, mogli ste zapravo naučno reći je li vaša jabuka crvenija od jabuka s gornjeg dijela zemlje.

HISANO: Standardiziranje boje omogućilo bi trgovcima da lako komuniciraju, a također bi im dalo standard za ocjenjivanje poljoprivrednih proizvoda i drugih prerađenih prehrambenih proizvoda.

GREBER: I tako bi savršenije ujednačeno crvene jabuke mogle dobiti višu ocjenu, što je značilo i višu cijenu.

TWILLEY: Ovi alati - ti spektrofotometri i grafikoni boja - svi su bili dio procesa stvaranja nečega što je inherentno promjenjivo poput hrane koja se uklapa u savremeni sistem industrijske montažne linije.

BERENSTEIN: Ono što proizvođači hrane i istraživačke industrije koje ih podržavaju nastoje učiniti je kvantificirati i mjeriti i kontrolirati sva ta osjetilna svojstva hrane, kako bi se garantovala standardizacija, zar ne? Kako biste bili sigurni da se svaki Oreo, svaka limenka ili boca Orange Crush -a koja siđe s proizvodne trake ne razlikuje od prethodnog i od onog poslije. Ali ne samo za standardizaciju, već i za optimizaciju, zar ne? Da biste stvorili okuse koji su nezaboravni, a možda čak i neodoljivi, na taj način stvorite neku vrstu maksimalne količine užitka.

TWILLEY: Ova promjena - povećana važnost boje, njena standardizacija, čak i optimizacija - imala je neke čudne efekte na našu hranu. A da biste ih istražili, u ovoj epizodi ćemo vam ispričati priču o tri različite boje. Počevši od narandže.

GREBER: Nadia je spomenula da su ove nove tehnologije omogućile proizvođačima hrane da standardiziraju stvari poput Oreosa, ali su također dopustile i ljudima u novom industrijskom prehrambenom sistemu da standardiziraju voće i povrće.

TWILLEY: Dakle, za početak, priča o tome kako su naranče postale narandžaste.

GREBER: Prvo što trebate znati je da nisu sve naranče narandžaste.

TRACY KAHN: Ono što se događa je da zrele naranče u tropskim područjima imaju više zelenih nijansi ili mrlja na njima nego što ih imaju u područjima koja su suptropska poput Kalifornije, gdje su jače narandžaste boje kad sazriju. . I tako kad postanu narandžasti, zapravo vam ne govori kakav je njihov ukus unutra.

GREBER: Tracy Kahn je kustosica Givaudan Citrus Variety Collection na Univerzitetu California California Riverside, koju sam morala posjetiti za našu epizodu citrusa. Imam osjećaj da smo snimili mnogo epizoda.

TWILLEY: Samo nas je pet! Pa, pet i po, pretpostavljam. Cijeli život u godinama Gastropoda.

GREBER: Da, i mnogo epizoda u tom životu. Tako je do ranih 1900 -ih citrus bio luksuz u velikom dijelu svijeta. Bilo je toliko posebno da su djeca za Božić dobila narandžu u čarapama. Samo jedna narandža.

TWILLEY: Ali s porastom broja rashladnih željeznica, naranče Floride i Kalifornije počele su stizati do ostatka zemlje, a naranče su odjednom postale bijesne.

GREBER: Ali nisu izgledali isto.

KAHN: I u stvari, sjećam se, imam jasno sjećanje, prvi put kada sam bio na Floridi nakon što sam bio citrusni naučnik posjetio nekog naučnika sa Floride, šetali su me uokolo i pokazivali mi čak i naranče u krvi i različite stvari. Bio sam zapanjen koliko je sve blijeđe.

GRABER: Narandže u Floridi oduvijek su bile manje svijetle boje od kalifornijskih, ali možda je još važnije da su bile i nekako zelene.

HISANO: Dakle, Kalifornija, gdje su klimatski uslovi bili drugačiji od Floride, imala je bolji izgled naranči. Oni su distribuirali, objavljivali oglase i letke sa jarko narandžastim slikama, što je olakšalo ideju da je narandžasta boja znak dobrih, ukusnih pomorandži.

GREBER: Slike - naljepnice na sanducima za pakiranje i oglasi koje su stvorili kalifornijski uzgajivači - bile su prekrasne. Obično su bili na tamnoplavoj pozadini kako bi narandže zaista iskakale - jarko narandžaste. Svi su svijetli koliko mogu biti, gotovo crveni, izgledaju super sočno i nigdje nema tračka zelene nijanse.

TWILLEY: I potrošači su prodani. Narandžaste narandže su očigledno bile najbolje narandže. Što je značilo da zelene naranče nisu.

GREBER: Kao rezultat toga, zelenkaste boje nisu bile toliko unosne za uzgajivače. Godine 1909. narančaste naranče prodavale su se u New Yorku za 2 dolara po kutiji, dok su zelenkaste donijele samo 25 dolara.

TWILLEY: Što je bio problem za uzgajivače naranči na Floridi, gdje, kao što je Tracy rekla, klimatski uvjeti znače da čak ni zrele sočne naranče nisu nužno super naranče.

GREBER: I tako su uzgajivači Floride uzvratili. Objavljivali su oglase u kojima se tvrdi da je voće sa Floride najsočnije.

HISANO: Uzgajivači u Floridi objavili su oglas u velikim novinama koji prikazuje ženu koja u rukama drži narandžu i kaže: "Kupujte grejp i naranče, ne po izgledu, već po osjećaju, predlažući da potrošači trebaju koristiti ruke, a ne oči, kako bi procijenili kvalitetu" voća. Ova je poruka bila da bi naranče u Floridi sadržavale više soka nego naranče iz drugih regija, te bi trebale biti teže. Dakle, ako koristite ruke, možete osjetiti razliku.

TWILLEY: Istina je da sočne narandže teže više. Tako biram citruse u supermarketu. No, gospodin i gospođa prosječni potrošač nisu bili uvjereni. Rečeno im je da su zrele narandže narandžaste i poverovali su.

HISANO: Tako su tridesetih godina prošlog stoljeća uzgajivači Floride počeli koristiti ovu metodu koja se zove Harveyjev proces, a koju je izumio fiziolog biljaka sa Sveučilišta Minnesota, Rodney Harvey. On je stvorio ovu metodu koristeći sintetičke boje za bojenje naranči. Tako su uzgajivači stavili narandže u rastvor za bojenje na oko pet minuta, a zatim obojili kožu.

GREBER: Da, istina je, uzgajivači u Floridi pribjegli su umiranju svojih naranči u narandžastoj boji. U to se vrijeme ova sintetička boja smatrala sigurnom, a u svakom slučaju bojenje naranči bilo je savršeno legalno jer uzgajivači zapravo nisu mijenjali hranu.

TWILLEY: Nije bilo kao da su ovi uzgajivači na Floridi prodavali nezrele naranče obojene kako bi izgledale zrele. Prodavali su zrele naranče kojima je trebalo samo malo pomoći da izgledaju zrelo kao što su zapravo bile.

HISANO: Dakle, vlada nije mogla regulirati bojenje naranči rekavši da se radi o falsifikatu prehrambenih proizvoda.

GREBER: Vlada je zaista rekla da su uzgajivači morali označiti ove obojene naranče kao, da, obojene, ali uzgajivačima na Floridi to je bilo sasvim u redu.

HISANO: U početku su uzgajivači narandže na Floridi vjerovali u to ili su se nadali da će ovaj simbol dodane boje ili znak dodane boje poslužiti kao simbol kvalitete proizvoda jer je unutrašnjost narandže savršeno zrela.

TWILLEY: Sviđa mi se koliko su optimisti bili ti uzgajivači na Floridi. Nažalost, još jednom, gospodin i gospođa prosječni potrošač nisu bili uključeni u razmjenu poruka na Floridi. Mislili su da postoji nešto sumnjivo u narančama za koje je potrebno bojenje.

GREBER: A onda je vlada postala pomalo zabrinuta zbog zdravstvenih učinaka određene boje koju su uzgajivači na Floridi koristili. No, 40 -ih godina, 21 milijun od ukupno 30 milijuna naranči isporučenih iz države Florida bilo je obojeno.

HISANO: Ali došlo je do velikog pomaka u industriji citrusa na Floridi 1950 -ih kada su se uzgajivači Floride ili industrija citrusa Floride prebacili na smrznuti koncentrirani sok od naranče. Tako su mnoge naranče na Floridi otišle u tvornice za preradu poput naranči iz konzerve i soka od naranče u koncentriranom koncentratu, koje su postale prilično popularne nakon Drugog svjetskog rata.

TWILLEY: Sok od naranče Floride bio je narančasti, na kraju krajeva, čak i ako koža nije. Pa je njihova prodaja kao sok uspjela. Problem riješen.

GREBER: Ali ima nešto čudno u ovoj priči - neke naranče su narančaste, a očito su neke narandže nekako zelene. A neke narandže, poput naranči, gotovo su ljubičaste. No, nije li narančasta - narančasta? Zar boja i voće nisu ista stvar?

DAVID KASTAN: Mislim, kad sam tek počeo razmišljati o ovome, pretpostavljam da me je zanimalo pitanje, je li bilo narandže prije nego što je bilo naranči? I čudno, odgovor je ne.

TWILLEY: Ovo je David Kastan, profesor engleskog jezika na Yaleu, i autor knjige o boji, tzv. U boji.

KASTAN: Jedna od stvari koje sam znao prije nego što sam počeo razmišljati o ovome bila je na staroengleskom, pa čak i na srednjem engleskom, nema riječi narančasta. To je uvijek složena riječ. To vrijedi za gotovo sve evropske jezike. To je složena riječ koja je u suštini žuto-crvena. Tako Chaucer, na primjer, u jednoj od svojih priča opisuje lisicu. I kaže da je boja lisice između žute i crvene. Dakle, znate, vizuelno postoji osjećaj šta narandžasta mora biti, ali nema riječi. A onda do 17. stoljeća postoji riječ.

TWILLEY: Dakle, šta se dogodilo između kasnih 1300 -ih, kada je Chaucer pisao, i 1600 -ih?

KASTAN: Odgovor je naranča.

GREBER: Ono što se tada dogodilo bili su portugalski trgovci. Obilazili su globus, donoseći sa sobom razne egzotične i ukusne stvari sa sobom. Mornari su stigli do indijskog potkontinenta, a kad su bili tamo, natovarili su se i u Europu donijeli prve slatke naranče.

TWILLEY: I Evropljani su ih voljeli. Odlučili su da ovo moraju biti zlatne jabuke drevnog mita.

GREBER: I zapravo, na modernom hebrejskom, koji su u 19. i 20. stoljeću oživjeli Europljani, voće se naziva tapuz, koja miješa riječi jabuka -tapuach- i zlato -zahav.

TWILLEY: Ali na sanskrtu, na indijskom potkontinentu, ovo okruglo voće jarkih boja zvalo se narang. I mnogi su evropski jezici upravo posudili tu riječ.

KASTAN: Vjerovatno znate na španjolskom da riječ za narandžastu glasi naranja. Ali mislim da se ono što se dogodilo na jezicima kao što su engleski ili francuski ili italijanski, gdje uz članak često nalazi "n", mislim da je "n" s vremenom jednostavno prekinulo jer su ljudi mislili da je to dio članka. Pa, znate, kako biste čuli razliku na engleskom između narandže i norangea? Znaš, možda to nećeš čuti.

GREBER: Pa pretpostavljam da to znači da bi i teoretski boja trebala biti narandžasta?

TWILLEY: Narandžasto ili narandžasto, poenta je da su sada Evropljani imali tu riječ. Pa kad su ga počeli koristiti za boju, a ne samo za voće?

GREBER: U početku je narančasta bila opis druge boje. Shakespeare ga je koristio kao boju, ali samo za dodavanje nijansi značenja.

KASTAN: I to je obično za njega, to je fraza-on će reći da je ptica ili list narandžastosmeđe boje.

GREBER: Ali, i opet, ovo je zaista čudan dio narandžaste povijesti, koji neće postati kanonska boja sve do Isaaca Newtona.

TWILLEY: Kad nije bio zauzet da mu jabuke padnu na glavu, Newton je cijepao bijelo svjetlo prizmom i pokušavao otkriti koliko različitih boja može vidjeti u toj dugi. Što je lukavije nego što zvuči.

KASTAN: I onda kaže, pa, ponekad mislim da ih ima pet, a ponekad mislim da ih je 11. I tada Newton odluči da ih mora biti sedam. Ne zato što je siguran u to kao naučnu činjenicu, već je to za njega gotovo vjerska činjenica. Svet je stvoren za sedam dana. U dijatoničkoj ljestvici postoji sedam nota.

GREBER: Bilo mu je pet prilično očiglednih: crvena, žuta, zelena, plava i ljubičasta - ili ljubičasta. Ali Newtonu su bila potrebna još dva da bi savršio sedam.

KASTAN: Pa dodaje narandžastu između crvene i žute. I zaista nije sve do tog trenutka da je narančasta zaista boja kakvom je mislimo. A zatim dodaje indigo na drugom kraju tog spektra, za koji je u vrijeme kad ga je dodao indigo poznat samo kao boja. To uopće nije bila boja. A ako pogledate način na koji su ljudi govorili o boji, rekli bi da je poput indiga boja za bojenje stvari u plavo. Ali Newton je upravo bio posvećen dobivanju sedam boja u dugi, pa su narančasta i indigo odjednom stekli prestiž i sigurnost kakvu doista nisu imali.

TWILLEY: Tako je narančasta postala prava boja, kao i voće.

GREBER: I cijela ova priča je bila i kako su naranče postale tako savršeno narandžaste u supermarketu, čak i ako su zapravo zelene na drvetu. Uzgajivači hrane i kompanije u novom industrijskom prehrambenom sistemu zapravo su odredile koje boje bi trebala biti naša hrana.

HISANO: Ova kontrola boje u poslovanju s hranom u prehrambenoj industriji na neki je način uvježbala naše oči da gledaju hranu s određenim očekivanjima, koja su prilično standardizirana i ujednačena. Poput žute boje za banane ili narančaste boje za naranče.

TWILLEY: Čekaj, šta? Ai nam sada govori da ni banane nisu nužno žute?

HISANO: Tako su do kraja 19. stoljeća, oko 1870 -ih, američke brodarske kompanije uvozile banane i crvene i žute sorte iz Centralne i Južne Amerike u Sjedinjene Države. No, crvena sorta imala je tanju kožicu i bilo je lakše dobiti modrice i lakše sazrijeti prije nego što je stigla u američku luku.

GREBER: Dakle, američke kompanije prodavale su samo žute sorte i stvorile su lijepe, privlačne jarkožute oglase za žute banane. Kao rezultat toga, potrošači su očekivali žute banane. I zato su banane žute.

TWILLEY: Možda nemamo crvenih banana u našim supermarketima, ali imamo dosta crvene hrane, prirodne i umjetno obojene - što je upravo ono gdje idemo. Poglavlje 2: Crveno.

GREBER: Ljudi su oduvijek voljeli crvenu boju i htjeli su hranu učiniti crvenom pa su pronašli načine za to. Poput upotrebe insekata koji su odjeću i hranu obojili duboko grimizno. Insekti se zovu cochineal. Nalaze se u Južnoj Americi kroz Meksiko i jugozapadni dio SAD -a. And the Mayan and Aztec civilizations used these bugs to turn things red starting about two thousand years ago.

TWILLEY: In Europe, saffron was often used to color food orangey yellow—it’s mentioned in Homer’s Iliad. But cochineal and saffron are both expensive. So those food colors were only really an option for the elite.

HISANO: For more popular use, for a cheaper substitute, people used, for example, spinach or carrot juices.

GRABER: But it took a really long time and a ton of work to get food coloring from spinach and carrot juice. And then at the end of it all, the dyes weren’t particularly bright and they didn’t last very long.

BERENSTEIN: There was a time when maybe in the 19th century when achieving a colorful cake or a colorful pastry really demanded the intensive labor of somebody like laboring in the kitchen, making all of the different colored dyes from natural sources, when they weren’t commercially available. And creating a kind of like spectacle for the table, to kind of cement the host’s class standing and the elegance of the meal that people had just had. And then when bright colors become commercially available, synthetic dyes, for instance, the kind of elite status of being able to have brightly colored food diminishes or the cultural meaning of it shifts.

TWILLEY: Yep, once everyone can have something, it’s no longer quite as special. The first synthetic dye was actually mauve—it was invented in the 1850s by a chemist looking to make artificial quinine of all things.

GRABER: And yes, of course, I’m now going to send you all to yet another Gastropod episode—you should go listen to Move Over Gin, We’ve Got Tonic Fever to find out why quinine was so important.

TWILLEY: By the late 1800s, scientists had created a range of artificial colors, mostly from coal tar and other petroleum derivatives. One of the earliest adopters for these synthetic food dyes was the butter industry—dairy farmers wanted their butter to have that lovely yellowish glow of spring butter all year round.

GRABER: The other early adopter of these bright new synthetic dyes were confectioners. This is around the same time as artificial flavors were introduced. And candy companies wanted to create a signpost for consumers—hey, this bright green color represents this new artificial lime flavor. So people came to associate bright green with lime, even though limes aren’t always that shade of almost neon green.

TWILLEY: And honestly limes don’t really taste like artificial lime either. But the point is, the rise of artificial food colorings really coincides with the industrialization of food—Ai says that by 1900, a full third of the food sold in the U.S. was manufactured. And during processing, that food often lost its color or turned brown and sludgy. So artificial colors were essential to make these new processed foods look appetizing.

GRABER: For decades, the food industry was totally enamored with these artificial colors. They used them generously and expansively. Artificial reds and yellows and greens could be found in nearly all foods.

TWILLEY: At first, consumers were more or less on board with these shiny new chemicals in their food. The government started regulating them in 1907, and people enjoyed being able to bring a pop of color to their table without all the work of juicing spinach or carrots by hand. Before synthetic dyes were invented, most cake frosting was white—now ordinary people could make gorgeous decorated cakes and desserts at home!

GRABER: But the tide of public opinion started to turn in the 1950s.

HISANO: There was an incident where a number of children became ill after eating orange-colored Halloween candy. And later, several years later, also, many people became ill after eating red-colored popcorn, which were sold for Christmas candies. And these incidents were primarily due to synthetic dyes used for these candies.

TWILLEY: In response, the government formed a special committee to investigate the safety of artificial food colors, and between 1955 and 1960, they banned 11 previously popular colors—including the one that made Florida oranges so orange. Fortunately, those oranges were mostly being turned into juice by then.

GRABER: But that’s not the end of the synthetic dye scares. The next big concern was around—can you guess? If you’re not one of our younger listeners, you might know that we’re about to talk about Red No. 2.

HISANO: This is a synthetic dye which became one of the most controversial food dyes during the 1960s and ’70s. So until then, this red dye No. 2, had been considered one of the safest synthetic dyes.

TWILLEY: But in the 1970s, Soviet scientists published a paper saying Red No. 2 caused cancer in rats. So maybe it should be banned, too?

HISANO: But this red dye No. 2 was quite profitable for many dye companies and food companies because it was cheaper to use than many other red dyes and also it could be used in many different products like candies, soft drinks and many other food products.

GRABER: Other red dyes were kind of orangey red, but Red No. 2 was a bluish-red. And it was super super useful for food companies. It was stable and cheap and bright.

TWILLEY: And it was used in everything—the things you would expect, like cakes and confectionary and soft drinks and canned fruit, but also processed meat, and vinegar, and even white fish—a little bit of Red No. 2 apparently made white fish look whiter.

GRABER: The FDA decided that because of the Soviet tests, they should check Red No. 2 out. There were a lot of tests done on the food dye. And yes, some of the FDA tests did seem to show that it caused cancer—in rats. When they consumed like the equivalent of the amount of Red No. 2 you’d get in thousands of cans of soda per day.

TWILLEY: A lot of these tests seem to have been kind of badly done—the FDA apparently accidently mixed up the control rats with the Red No. 2 rats at one point—but anyway, they finally decided the evidence was enough to ban Red No. 2 in 1976.

HISANO: But the safety-ness of this red dye No. 2, it’s still controversial. Because in the United States as well as other some countries, red dye No. 2 is prohibited still. But some countries like Japan, Australia, New Zealand and some other countries still allow the use of red dye No. 2.

GRABER: So it’s unclear how dangerous it really is, but it did disappear from American food companies’ palette.

TWILLEY: You know what else disappeared in 1976? Red M&Ms.

HISANO: After the government banned red dye No. 2, Mars stopped making red candies and instead they added, I believe, orange candies. And they claimed that they had not been using red dye No. 2, but the color red itself would confuse consumers.

TWILLEY: But wait, I hear you say, there are red M&Ms in my candy bag today. Da oni su. The red M&M made a triumphant comeback in 1985, due to customer demand. Using a different artificial dye, of course.

GRABER: Even though many people enjoy those brightly colored M&Ms, a lot of consumers are still worried about synthetic dyes—there was a study out of the UK that seemed to link them to hyperactivity.

TWILLEY: That study also had its flaws—but honestly these things are really hard to study because we consume food colorings in tiny doses in combinations of lots of different foods over years and years, so it’s almost impossible to actually pull out any individual chemical’s effects in humans over time.

GRABER: But one thing this whole synthetic dye hoopla did was of course reinvigorate the public’s interest in natural dyes—those dyes that in the past had been so incredibly expensive or difficult to produce. Scientists in recent decades had found ways to make it a little easier to dye food from natural substances—

TWILLEY: But there’s one color that they still can’t really make: blue. Which is our next story. True blue, we love you, but why oh why are you so difficult?

KATIE ROUNTREE: So the fun thing with natural colors is that you have to remember they are coming from different natural sources. So each color is going to have its own set of challenges within it.

GRABER: Katie Rountree is a senior scientist with DDW The Color House, they’re a natural food color company. And when Katie says fun, she’s saying it like teachers at the gym might do—it means it’s going to be pretty hard.

ROUNTREE: So for example, if we’re looking at turmeric, that is not a very light stable compound. So it may be great in a cracker that’s going to be sealed in a bag and in a cardboard box over time, but we wouldn’t use turmeric in a beverage that’s going to be in a clear bottle because if we waited a couple days, to weeks, it would completely fade out and be a clear beverage.

TWILLEY: Katie says natural yellow and orange are hard—but the hardest of all is blue. Our final color story.

ROUNTREE: So one of the cool colors that I love in natural colors is spirulina. It’s a protein-based natural color, from algae. So when we’re trying to make a dairy product, like ice cream or a beverage that’s milk based into a blue color, we can have a really pretty soft blue color and make it look really nice and fun to drink. But when we’re trying to use spirulina in a baked good, the batter will look really nice and that really pretty blue color. But then when we bake it, we’re denaturing the protein by exposing it to that heat, and the color will completely fade over time. So blue in bakery is definitely a challenge.

TWILLEY: Katie is being as upbeat as possible about making blue from natural sources—she has to be because she works for a natural color company.

GRABER: But Cathie Martin is a bit more blunt about the challenge. She’s a professor at the University of East Anglia and a specialist in all things naturally blue.

CATHIE MARTIN: The problem for the blue range, and green is also a bit of a problem, is that there aren’t very good, natural alternatives. So at the moment, the only really strong, you know, commercially strong colorant is from spirulina, which is an alga, and it’s much more greeny than blue.

GRABER: Blue as a color is actually really rare in nature. There are very few truly blue flowers or fruits. Other than maybe blueberries?

MARTIN: Blueberries are not really naturally blue. It’s a purple color. They’re certainly not blue. In my view, I mean, we would call that a purple color.

TWILLEY: We can agree to disagree here. But of course, overall Cathie’s right—blue is extremely rare in nature. Most of the time when you see blue flowers, like on a hydrangea—well, a) they’re kind of more lilac-y than deep blue, and b) they’re actually only blue thanks to a chemical reaction with the alkaline soil they’re growing in.

GRABER: The fact that blue is rare in plants has to do with a couple of factors—first, most plant color chemicals absorb light in that bluish spectrum instead of reflecting that light as a color.

TWILLEY: It’s also a hard color to produce biologically—natural blue molecules have these decorated ring structures that Cathie says are quite fussy.

MARTIN: Most of the flowering plants have colors that come from anthocyanins and anthocyanins are very interesting phenolic molecules and they’re quite unstable.

GRABER: Cathie is actually particularly obsessed with anthocyanins, she’s been researching them for 35 years. And because of that obsession, she’s started looking into how to turn food blue.

MARTIN: Okay, so, it was completely by accident, really. We were interested in trying to increase the antioxidant capacity of tomatoes significantly to make higher antioxidant foods that that might have health benefits.

TWILLEY: Cathie’s first blue breakthrough came when she tried to breed a tomato that had super high levels of these healthy anthocyanins as well as regular lycopene. And her tomato turned out blue.

MARTIN: So it’s really—it’s really a royal blue, and when you cut the tomatoes open, then everyone goes, wow. I’m looking forward to making a Royal Bloody Mary.

TWILLEY: I will be honest, looking at the photos, Cathie’s blue tomatoes are actually more indigo. I hate to say it but they’re about as blue as a blueberry. Still very pretty though.

GRABER: But because of those royal blue or maybe more indigo-y tomatoes, Cathie started to meet with companies that were interested in better natural blue food dye.

TWILLEY: Which is when she realized that a really bright blue was kind of a holy grail for natural food coloring. And so she started trying to make one using her favorite chemicals, anthocyanins.

MARTIN: So you can extract natural blues, say from cornflower or delphinium, but they don’t have a very long, shelf life, you know, at high pH and under normal conditions. You have to keep them frozen. Otherwise, the color disappears within about a day.

GRABER: Cathie and her colleagues looked through about 40 or 50 species of blue flowers—at one point her post doc was investigating delphiniums from his mom’s garden—and then finally they found the winner.

MARTIN: This wonderful plant called butterfly pea. I’m not going to call it by its scientific name, by the way because its scientific name is Clitoria ternatea. And it does look like a clitoris. So that’s why it’s called that. And you can edit that out.

GRABER: Why would we edit that out?

MARTIN: Uh, yeah, we could call it butterfly pea.

TWILLEY: Yeah, the butterfly pea, or Clitoria ternatea, looks like—well, it looks like what it sounds like, except that it’s a really deep intense blue.

MARTIN: You can buy it through Amazon to make a beautiful blue tea, you know, you can just put the, the dried leaf material into your Nespresso machine and you can get the blue tea coming out.

GRABER: The clitoria flower—I just like saying its scientific name—it’s actually used to make tea in Thailand, and it’s used in dishes in southeast Asia as well.

TWILLEY: With some work, Cathie figured out how to extract the blue from the clitoria flower and then turn it into crystals to make it more stable. And then she started using it to color food!

MARTIN: We had some very nice cupcakes and ice cream. Ice cream’s really good.

GRABER: And, based on photos, actually blue. The biggest hurdle is just growing enough of the flowers to meet industry demand—Cathie says a company in Spain is working on that.

TWILLEY: Apparently this blue is fully kosher, and quite stable in most applications but it can’t do everything.

MARTIN: I don’t think it would, it wouldn’t create a blue in a soda, you know, because that pH is very low, so it would change to a red color. Yeah, it’s not, it’s not good for fizzy drinks with, with rather low pH.

GRABER: Cathie does think she and other scientists might be able to improve the color and make it even more useful—and she thinks using these types of natural colors based on anthocyanins is a good way to get even more of that beneficial chemical into our diets.

TWILLEY: So one thing that’s curious is that raspberries—yes, my favorite berry again—they are a good natural source of anthocyanins … but regular raspberries are red. Maybe a little bluish tint to the red, but not the electric blue of… blue raspberry.

BERENSTEIN: I mean every, all of us, everybody, I would wager that everybody in the United States, who grew up in the United States has a pretty good idea of what blue raspberry is of the kind of electric turquoise color of rocket pops or Icees or Jolly Ranchers and the kind of like acid tang of it and the way that it dyes your tongue. I think that’s one of the best parts of it, right? That you eat this blue candy and then your tongue is this lurid shade of turquoise purple.

GRABER: As we mentioned earlier, Nadia Berenstein is a flavor historian, but as a side hustle she has spent a lot of time trying to figure out how raspberries, at least the fake ones, became blue.

BERENSTEIN: And usually there’s a story about blue raspberry, or the history of it that gets repeated often and it basically goes like this: that in the early 1970s, FDA started to become concerned about the toxicity or the potentially harmful effects of a approved and commercially available and widely used dye

TWILLEY: A widely used dye called Red No. 2. This is the story we just told you in our red section.

GRABER: And as you know, Red No. 2 was used in all sorts of treats, especially those that were flavored to taste like cherries and raspberries. And then it was banned.

BERENSTEIN: Another dye that was available in the market but was rarely used alone was Blue No. 1. And Blue No. 1 is the color of what we now know is blue raspberry. It’s that kind of crazy electric blue. And so, either Flavor Ice, right, this a maker of kind of frozen slushy ice particles in plastic sleeves or Icee in the early Seventies decided to forgo the red coloring and make their raspberry flavor with only Blue No. 1. And from then on, it took off and became a sensation.

TWILLEY: But, like so many of the great food origin stories, this blue raspberry origin story might not be 100% true. Nadia has her doubts.

BERENSTEIN: It’s a really appealing story and it kind of makes sense. But the thing is when you start looking into the archives, the historical record, blue raspberry as a flavor exists before then. There’s also the problem that FDA didn’t outlaw the red coloring until the mid-Seventies. And so, you have to explain why these Icee manufacturers would have kind of abandoned it before then. So I started looking through, trying to figure out if I could find the, like, original blue raspberry, and found a bunch of examples of blue raspberry flavors in ice cream and popsicles in the early ’50s, including a blue raspberry Popsicle from 1955.

GRABER: So if the Red No. 2 ban is not the origin story for blue raspberry—what was the real story? Nadia did some digging.

BERENSTEIN: I was trying to sort of figure out like what the deal with this was. And I found that it seems like blue raspberry started as a flavor in order to give ice cream vendors in the early ’50s, a way of creating a patriotic midsummer Fourth of July, like Neapolitan-style ice cream, except with red, white and blue. You need a blue flavor, right? There were no other widely available blue flavors. So blue raspberry sort of comes out of that.

TWILLEY: Once again, I’m thinking, what about the blueberry. Why not be patriotic with a blueberry? I know Cathie doesn’t think they’re really blue, but surely they’re blue enough to celebrate the flag?

GRABER: Turns out that there just weren’t a lot of blueberries around at the time, they hadn’t yet become the sensation they are today.

TWILLEY: So the blue raspberry was really the only blue fruit that a flag-loving American could consume on his or her national holiday.

BERENSTEIN: Many of the ice cream advertisements that I found seem to be linked to this kind of patriotic notion. And there’s also like Rocket Pops. So it comes out of this, I don’t know, Cold War U.S., like let’s respect and celebrate the flag by eating it mentality.

GRABER: I totally remember eating those red white and blue Rocket Pops when I was a kid in the ’70s. With the blue raspberry at the very bottom. So patriotic and so very Cold War.

TWILLEY: I ate them in England thinking they were the colors of the Union Jack, but never mind.

GRABER: But whatever flag you fly, the fact remains, it was because of this weird need for patriotic food that the food industry taught us to expect something electric blue to taste like, well, that acidic fruity blue raspberry flavor. Just like the food industry taught us to expect bright orange oranges and yellow bananas.

TWILLEY: This is the story that Ai tells in her book—color became more important in how we choose food as the role of our other senses diminished, because of advances in technologies like printing and packaging and food coloring—it was just easier for companies to standardize and optimize color than smell, for example.

GRABER: That transition and that influence has always been eyed with some suspicion, but we’ve kind of gone along with it, at least in the U.S. But today we’re in kind of a weird place. People want more natural dyes, but they also still want brightly colored foods.

TWILLEY: The best example of this dilemma is probably the Trix debacle of 2016. Trix, for those of you who haven’t had the pleasure, is a fruity pebble-shaped breakfast cereal, and it used to be very brightly colored.

GRABER: But then people started clamoring for naturally dyed cereals, including the not very naturally flavored Trix. So instead General Mills used dyes that were made from radishes, and turmeric, and purple carrots. And the resulting bowl of Trix was more muted than the original.

TWILLEY: Pastel at best. If you were being kind.

GRABER: And people didn’t really like it—they said they wanted natural dyes, but really, they wanted their Trix to look the way it had always looked. And so now you can buy both—the natural version and the synthetically dyed one.

TWILLEY: Ai says today, the U.S. is still by far the largest market for synthetic food colors. And the rise of Instagram and rainbow unicorn lattes has only fueled that.

GRABER: Just like the technologies of the early 1900s allowed people to see the same colors in advertisements and expect that color in their food, today, with Instagram filters, and the idea that we should eat the rainbow of super bright fruits and vegetables, and because we have lots of bright synthetic dyes, people expect their foods to be more colorful than ever.

TWILLEY: But while it might be easier than crushing insects and cheaper than saffron, no one said making unicorn-colored food was easy.

RANT FROM A STARBUCKS BARISTA ABOUT MAKING UNICORN LATTES (INSIDE EDITION)

GRABER: Once again, you listeners might have noticed that we have almost no ads this episode because companies have pulled their advertising in the wake of the coronavirus. This is just a reminder in these challenging times—we are a two-woman team, and Gastropod is our full-time job, and we rely on listeners like you to make the show, now more than ever. We hope you’re all safe and healthy, and if you’re in a position to help support us, you can find out more at gastropod.com/support or on Patreon.

TWILLEY: It makes all the difference, especially right now. The other thing that really helps is spreading the word about the show. A lot of folks don’t have a commute right now and maybe are juggling a lot more than usual, but listening to Gastropod is a pretty fun distraction from the news, we hope. Plus who else is going to tell you the true story behind blue raspberries!

GRABER: So please tell your friends, coworkers, family, everyone you know who needs a little break. Thanks, we appreciate each and every one of you.

TWILLEY: Thanks also this episode to Ai Hisano, the author of the new book called Visualizing Taste: How Business Changed the Look of What You Eat, and to Raymond at Kyoto University for helping us tape her.

GRABER: Thanks so much to flavor historian Nadia Berenstein and her husband Robbie Lee who is a musician and recorded her so beautifully for us. We have a link to Nadia’s website at gastropod.com.

TWILLEY: And thanks also to Tracy Kahn at the UC Riverside Citrus Variety Collection, David Kastan, author of On Color, Cathie Martin of the University of East Anglia, and Katie Rountree at DDW The Color House. We’ve got links to all of them plus some beautiful blue tomato pictures at Gastropod.com.

GRABER: Huge thanks, as always, to our wonderful intern, Ashley Belanger. And that video you heard at the end of the show, that was from Inside Edition from April 2017.


The versatility of orange

Can you believe that orange looks so good with so many colors? It’s actually proving to be quite a versatile color.

I have seen orange in the shops in all kinds of shades from very bright to more demure colors, so you can just pick the color orange that suits your complexion and temperament best and mix and match with all these other fine colors.

You don’t even have to buy a garment in this color. Just adding a scarf or a bag will already give you that orange flavor and will add some flair to your outfit.


Top 3 best box dyes

Have you known how to fix orange hair from box dye? Lastly, I would like to introduce to you the top 3 best box dyes which achieve a lot of positive comments and reviews by users all over the world. Thanks to these suggestions, I think you will be able to buy yourself the most suitable product so that you can not only have the right hue when dying hair at home but you also can fix your unwanted hair colors.

Clairol Natural Instincts

The first brand I want to show you is Clairol. Clairol is known as a brand which has a lot of hair products at affordable prices. With numerous shades, Clairol provides customers with a lot of selections to choose from. One of the most favorite goods of Clairol is Clairol Natural Instincts. Likewise other Clairol’s products, this one is able to be fade-resistant. This is a demi-permanent product. Besides, with ammonia-free ingredients, it can help you to dye gray hair with entire coverage and give you shiny and soft hair. So, if you are curious about how to fix orange hair to brown with box dye, just try this product and see the result.

Clairol Natural Instincts (Source: Internet)

Revlon ColorSilk

I think that Revlon is so famous in the world. Apart from hair care products, Revlon’s box dyes are also known for its efficiency on a lot of different hair color like red, dark brown and so on. The ideal representative of Revlon I want to show you today is Revlon ColorSilk. This product can cover your gray hair perfectly and still keep the hair shine and look gorgeous. In addition, this one can last for 4 weeks so you do not need to be afraid that you have to dye hair regularly.

Revlon ColorSilk (Source: Internet)

L’ORÉAL Paris Colorist Secrets Brass Banisher Color Balancing Gloss Treatment

Another familiar name is L’ORÉAL Paris. If you do not know how to fix orange hair with box dye, definitely L’ORÉAL Paris can do you a favor. Just spending some minutes and searching for L’ORÉAL Paris Colorist Secrets Brass Banisher Color Balancing Gloss Treatment, you will see what you should purchase. As its name, it can help you to get rid of brassiness thanks to its magical formula. Furthermore, this product can give your hair a beautiful hue and keep it glossy. With a reasonable price, I believe that there is no reason which can prevent you from purchasing it to fix your brassy orange hair. Moreover, it is available on Amazon, so just buy and try it!

L’ORÉAL Paris Colorist Secrets Brass Banisher Color Balancing Gloss Treatment (Source: Internet)

So I have already shared with you how to fix orange hair with box dye and the top 3 best box dyes from world-famous brands in the world. I truly hope that this article can be a guideline helping you to learn about the way to repair the brassiness and also to pick the best box dye for your hair. Finally, thanks for reading!


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